AP State Syllabus AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Solutions Chapter 7 Coal and Petroleum Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus 8th Class Physical Science Solutions 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum
8th Class Physical Science 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum Textbook Questions and Answers
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Complete the given analogy.
i) Coal : ExhaustIble :: ———– : InexhaustIble
ii) Coaltar : ———– :: Coke : Manufacture of steel
iii) Petrochemicals : Plastic :: CNG : ———–
iv) Carbondioxide: Global warming :: ———– : Nausea
i) Coal : ExhaustIble :: Solar energy : InexhaustIble
ii) Coaltar : Paints :: Coke : Manufacture of steel
iii) Petrochemicals : Plastic :: CNG : Fertilizer
iv) Carbondioxide: Global warming :: Heavy metals : Nausea
Match the following.
Group – A Group – B
i) Natural resource ( ) a) Carbonisation
ii) Coal ( ) b) Plastic chair
iii) Petrochemical product ( ) c) Krishna and Godavari delta
iv) Natural gas ( ) d) Plankton
v) Petroleum ( ) e) Water
Multiple Choice Questions:
i) Which one of the following is less polluting fuel?
a) Natural Gas
ii) The main constituent of coal is
iii) Which one of the following material is used for making shoe polish?
a) Paraffin wax
d) Lubricating oil
Fill in the blanks.
i) …………… was used in manufacture of steel. (Coke)
ii) The biproduct of coal used in synthetic dyes and paints is ………………. (coal tar)
iii) Coal was formed in areas where large amounts of ………………. was buried under the earth. (forests)
iv) ………………… gas which causes climate change and global warming. (Carbon dioxide)
Name the petroleum products is used for roads surfacing.
A petroleum product of bitumen is used for roads surfacing in place of coal tar these days.
Explain the process of formation of petroleum in Earth. (OR)
Explain the process of formation of petroleum in the Earth.
Petroleum was formed from the remains of tiny organisms called plankton that were found in the bottom of seas and oceans. Plankton have tiny droplets of oil inside their bodies.
As these organisms died, their bodies settled at the bottom of the sea or ocean and got covered with layers of sand and clay. Over millions of years, due to absence of air, high temperature and high pressure these dead organisms transformed into petroleum.
Compare a CNG run vehicle with that of a diesel run vehicle. What difference do you notice in both cases with respect to pollutants released, level of pollution and cost of fuel? Prepare a report on your findings. You can take the help of a driver to make a report on your observation.
|Name of the fuel
|Cost of the fuel as on today
|Rs. 52.97/ Rs. 72.14 per litre
|Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydro carbons, sulphur dioxide
|Rs. 49 per kg
|Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide
Choose five families of your neighbourhood, collect the information about the measures that they adopt to conserve energy resources in transport and cooking.
Make a report on your observation.
The precautionary methods taken by them to conserve energy resources in transport and cooking.
- They do not using their motor vehicles for travelling smaller distances.
- They are completing small distances by walk or by bicycle.
- They are regularly servicing their vehicles.
- They are regularly changing the engine oil of the vehicle.
- They are travelling at prescribed speed and not applying brakes unnecessarily which increase the milage.
- They are using cookers.
- Not preparing to many fries which can increase the fuel consumption.
- Regularly cleaning the burners of gas stove.
- Cooking the food with sufficient water.
The following table shows the total power shortage percentage in India from 1991-1997. Show the data in the form of a bar graph taking shortage percentage for the years on the Y-axis and the years on the X-axis.
a) Is the shortage percentage of power increasing or decreasing?
The power shortage not followed a regular trend. It decreased from 1991 to 1992 and then increased in 1993 and then decreased upto 1995 and then increased upto 1997 from the table given.
b) If shortage percentage of power increases year by year, how will it affect on human life? Explain.
The effect of shortage percentage of power on human life:
Agriculture: Agriculture mainly depends on electric power for water supply. If there is no sufficient power is available then the yield of food material decreases.
Industry: Industries mainly run with electric power. If electric power is not sufficient then it is major set back for their production.
Economy: Economy drastically affected by shortage of power which will also effects the economic status of people.
Health: Shortage of power also affects the health of people because many cured by operations which required power.
Science and Technology : The growth of science and technology completely get damage due to lack of power because they are mainly depend on power.
So shortage of power drastically affect human life.
Draw a flow chart showing exhaustible and inexhaustible resources and their use.
Collect the information about place were we get coal, petroleum and natural gas in Andhra Pradesh and mark the places on outline map of Andhra Pradesh.
Coal: Coal is not available in Andhra Pradesh.
Petroleum and Natural Gas: These reserves are spread over in Krishna and Godavari basins of our state.
How do you appreciate the efforts of human beings to discover an alternate energy source like coal and petroleum for their daily use?
Earlier people used kiln using wood for cooking food and for travelling they used horses and bullock carts. There was no electricity so their life was miserable. The wood they were using produced lot of pollution. So they required a fuel not only for cooking but also travelling long distances.
In 19th century the use of coal as fuel was the major thing in development of human beings. Steam engine which used coal was invented during industrial revolution. Later electricity was produced from coal. During this period the steam engine was used to power everything from cloth looms to vehicles on land and water.
The petroleum was started as fuel in 1859 then it was used everywhere in the world because it was better fuel than coal and less pollutant. So people were using petroleum products for their needs that is for cooking, transport and machinery, etc. So discovery of using coal and petroleum as fuel changes the life of human beings. So we should have to appreciate human being for their discovery of an alternative energy source like coal and petroleum for their daily use.
Harshith said to his father, “Daddy we can save more fuel by using bicycle instead of bike for going to nearby places”. How do you appreciate Harshith’s comment?
I would appreciate Harshith for his comment. We are wasting a lot of fuel for travelling near by places which can be covered either by bicycle or by walk. If we do like this a lot of fuel is consumed. Consuming fuel is producing fuel. So I thoroughly appreciate Harshith for his comment.
Why should people look for alternative sources of fossil fuel? (OR)
Write your opinion on the necessity of discovering an alternate energy sources to coal and petroleum.
The entire research and development in the field of sourced energy shows that at present rate of use of the conventional energy sources like fossil fuels will not last for long and also burning fuels release carbon dioxide a green house gas, which causes a climate changes and leads to global warming.
Coal fired power plants emit mercury, selenium, arsenic, lead in addition to green house gases which are harmful to human health and environment and availability of coal decreasing rapidly.
So people should have to look for alternative sources of fossil fuels which are inexhaustible and pollution free.
Assume that you are a driver, what measures do you take to save petrol and diesel?
- I will thoroughly check whether the engine of the vehicle properly working or not otherwise the vehicle consume more fuel and also release poisonous gases.
- I will thoroughly check the air in the tyres.
- I did not unnecessarily apply brakes which will consume more fuel.
- I will replace engine oils for every two or three months.
- I will run the vehicle in prescribed speed which will increase the milage.
- I did not allow overload in the vehicle.
“Crude oil and refined fuel when spills into the sea from tanker of ships by accident”. Discuss the consequences of this on environment.
Crude oil and refined fuel spills into sea from tanker of ships by accident causes a damage to natural system and kill sea birds, mammals, shell fish and other organisms due to lack of dissolved oxygen in water as oil is less denser than water it floats on water and forming a layer called oil slink and oxygen does not enters into the water.
“The use of CNG and LPG as fuels for automobiles helps us to minimize air pollution and maintains ecological balance.” Do you agree with this statement? If yes explain.
Yes, I will agree with the statement. CNG and LPG are completely combustible. CNG is less polluting and it is cleaner fuel releasing small quantity of harmful gases. Similarly LPG is also releases few polluting gases. CNG and LPG does not release hydrocarbons. They only release carbon dioxide and small quantities of sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide. So using CNG and LPG as fuels for automobiles help us to minimize air pollution and maintains ecological balance.
8th Class Physical Science 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum InText Questions and Answers
8th Class Physical Science Textbook Page No. 105
How is biodiversity affected by excessive use of fossil fuels?
Biodiversity affected by excessive use of fossil fuels:
- Burning fuels releases carbon dioxide a green house gas, which causes climate changes and leads to global warming.
- Coal fired power plants emits mercury, selenium, arsenic, lead in addition to green house gases which is harmful to human health and environment.
- Many paints made from petroleum and heavy metals release toxic products into air. These toxic products cause a variety of health problems including heart, lungs damage, nausea and dizziness.
So these are harmful effects of excessive use of fossil fuels on biodiversity.
8th Class Physical Science 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum Activities
Activity – 1
Identifying articles and materials used for various purposes.
Have a look at table. Column A gives the names of some activities and items. Ask your grandparents or other older people about the names of the materials then used for the items given in column A, and write them in column B. Then in column C, write the names of materials being used at present.
From activity 1, you have a long list of materials. Some of them like wood, metals (Iron, Silver, Gold etc) were used ten years, fifty years even hundred years ago. Do your grand parents remember using plastic when they were young?
Now think and wirte the answers:
a) How many of these materials were available 10 years ago?
Plastic, iron, gold and silver articles were available 10 years ago.
b) How many of these materials were available 50 years ago?
The articles made up of wood, iron, silver, gold are available 50 years ago and also articles made up of clay. There is no plastic articles.
c) How many of these materials were available 100 years ago?
The articles made up of clay, wood, iron, silver, gold were available 100 years ago.
Activity – 2
List out the natural resources which are limited and which are abundant arid record in table.
|Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, biomass enery, water
|Coal, petroleum, natural gas
a) What will happen if fossil fuel like coal and petroleum are completely exhausted?
- There would be no fuel for cooking.
- There would be no fuel for transport.
- There would be no fuel for running machinery.
- There would be no fuel for producing electricity.
So life on earth become miserable.
b) What would be our future energy resources?
The future energy resources are hydro electric power, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), biomass energy.
c) Are the fossil fuel resources available plenty to meet the future energy needs?
No, a survey gives an information that about 2015 the world people would consume half of total reserves of petroleum. Coal also exhaustible resource. We can meet our needs with coal for another 250 – 300 years at the current rate of use.
d) What actions required to meet the future energy needs?
- Do not waste fuel for unnecessary activities.
- The energy should be properly utilized and the wastage should be minimized.
- Usage of bicycle in place of motor vehicles for small distances.
- Using road transport vehicles for travelling larger distances which will minimize fuel consumption.
- The engine of a vehicle thoroughly serviced in order to minimize fuel consumption.
- Alternative sources like solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy more utilized.
Activity – 3
Identifying various uses of petroleum.
Look at the figure and find the other uses of petroleum and its products. Fill in the table.
Activity – 4
Identifying uses of coal products:
Observe the above picture and list out the uses of coal products in the following table. You can collect more information by the discussion with elders and with your friends.
Conduct an experiment to show that when we heat high quality coal, a gas evolves which can be burnt. (OR)
What are the materials required to demonstrate “burning of coal”? Draw the diagram of the experimental setup. (OR)
How do you prove a high quality coal on heating produces a burning gas?
Aim: To show that when we heat high quality of coal a gas evolves which can burn. Material required : Two boiling tubes, rubber corks, iron stands, delivery tube, jet tube, bunsen burner.
Procedure: Take a spoon of powdered coal into a hard boiling tube and fix it to a stand as shown in figure. Close the test tube with a rubber cork and connect it to another.
boiling tube which is partially filled with water and has fixed to other stand, with the help of ‘U’ shaped delivery tube. Arrange a jet tube to the cork of second boiling tube. Heat the boiling tube containing coal strongly with the help of bunsen burner.
We may notice that brownish black vapours evolved in the first boiling tube. These vapours are passed through water in the second boiling tube. Colourless gas bubbles evolve from the water. If we burn the gas that is evolving through the jet tube we can witness a bright flame at the nozzle. This shows when we heat high quality coal a gas evolves which can burn.
Activity – 5
Group discussion on misuse of fuel resources and its consequences.
Discuss in small groups how fuel resources are being misused in our daily life while doing various activities like
a) transportation, b) cooking and c) industrial use.
Misuse of fuel in transportation:
- Do not stopping the engine at traffic signals.
- Running the vehicle with more speed than prescribed speed.
- Unnecessarily using brakes.
- Not servicing the engine regularly.
- Not changing the engine oil regularly.
- Not filling air in the tyres regularly.
- Carrying overload in the vehicle.
- Using vehicles for smaller distances.
Misuse of fuel in cooking:
- Not stopping the burners when the cooking is over.
- Using more water than required which will consume more fuel.
- Not checking the burners regularly whether they are any dust particles which will lead more consumption of fuel.
- Preparing more fries which required more fuel.
Misuse of fuel in industries:
- Machinery is not properly working.
- Any flaws in the machinery.
- Not doing regularly maintenance of machinery.
- Lubricants are not used properly.
a) What are the consequences of misuse of fuels?
- Fossil fuels like coal and petroleum are completely exhausted.
- Misuse also leads to environmental pollution due to release of harmful gases like carbon monoxide.
b) What methods could you suggest to prevent the misuse of fuels?
- Drive at a constant and moderate speed as far as possible.
- Switch off the engine at traffic lights or at a place where you have to wait.
- Ensure correct tyre pressure.
- Ensure regular maintenance of the vehicle.
- Stop the burners when the cooking is over.
- Use sufficient water for cooking.
- Do not prepare more frying food.
- Ensure regular maintenance of the gas stove.
- Correct the flaws in the machinery.
- Ensure regular maintenance of machinery.
- Lubricants are used whenever necessary.