Telangana SCERT TS 6th Class Social Guide Pdf 11th Lesson – First Empires Textbook Questions and Answers.
First Empires – The Earliest People – TS 6th Class Social 11th Lesson Questions and Answers Telangana
What did the Ikshvaka rulers do to get acceptance from the various clan headmen ?
- Sometime after the end of the Satavahana kingdom a family who called themselves kshvakas assumed royal titles and established a kingdom with its capital Vijayapuri.
- These Ikshvaka rulers got acceptance from the varies clan headmen by inter¬marrying with their families.
Why do you think Ashoka was a unique ruler ?
- The most famous Mauryan ruler was AshokAnswer:
- He was the first ruler who tried to take his message to the people through inscriptions.
- Most of his inscriptions were in Prakrit and were written in the Brahmin script.
- Ka’linga is the ancient name of Coastal OdishAnswer: Ashoka fought a war to conquer KalingAnswer:
- However he was so horrified when he saw the violence and bloodshed that he decided not to fight any more wars.
- He is the only king in the history of the world who gave up conquest after winning a war.
What enabled the establishment of kingdoms in the Deccan 2000 years ago ?
- Around the time the Mauryans conquered the Deccan large parts of the region had developed village settlements.
- In some areas they also mined gold and made ornaments.
- Probably each of these areas was inhabited mainly by a group of people closely related to each other through birth and marriage.
- Such interrupted groups are also called clans.
- They gradually grew wealthy and powerful and ruled the clan areAnswer:
- Soon after the Mauryan empire ended, many headmen of such clans emerged as small kings.
- Among them were the Satavahanas or the Andhras who managed to build a large kingdom which extended from the banks of the Narmada river to the Krishna- Godavari deltAnswer:
- The most important Satavahana kings were Gautamiputra Satakarni, Vashishtiputra Pulumavi and Yagnasri Satakarni. They ruled about 2000 years ago for about 200 years.
Identify three rivers and two territorial capitals in map 1. Answer:
After the war of Kalinga, King Ashoka decided not to fight any more wars. Do you think these types of decisions promote world peace ? How ?
Ashoka’s decision to abandon the policy of war made possible for some states in the south to maintain their independence. He hence force, pursued a policy of friendship to all nations of the known world. So I think these types of decisions promote world peace. .
Locate the following in the world map.
d) Sri Lanka
Hereditary ruling was prevelant at the time of King AshokAnswer: How is present ruling different from that time ?
At present the ruling is in the hands of elected members. No. Heriditary ruling is pre¬vailed.
Read the para under the title ‘Ashoka’s message to his subjects’ in page no. 10 (97) and comment on it.
“People perform a variety of rituals when they fall ill, when their children get married, when children are born, or when they go on a journey. These rituals are not useful. If instead, people observe other practices, this would be more fruitful. What are these other practices ?
“They are: being gentle with slaves and servants; respecting one’s elders; treating all creatures with compassion; giving gifts to brahmins and monks. “It is wrong to praise one’s own religion or to criticize other’s religion. Each one should respect the other’s reiligion. “If one praises one’s own religion while criticising others, one is actually doing greater harm to one’s own religion. “Therefore, one should try to understand the main ideas of other’s religion, and respect it.”
His messages make us clear that all the legends about his wise and human rule are more than justified and quality him to be ranked as on of the greatest rulers. He spoke of what might be called state morality, and individual morality. Both the moralities were inbued with the Buddhist values of compassion, moderation, tolerance and respect for own life. He encouraged the practice of religions.
Discuss what were the social policies during the Gupta period ?
- Gupta dynasty was with great rulers like Samudra Gupta, Chandra Gupta – II, etc. and spread from Gujarat to Bengal and Delhi to Madhya Pradesh.
- When they conquered a new kingdom, they allowed old king to rule if they follow Gupta kings orders.
- They give Brahmins villages with administrative rights i.e. no need to pay taxes, obey the provincial officers, etc.
- Brahmins performed Yagnas and taught Vedas to young Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas.
- The Gupta Kings were also great patrons of Vedic religious practices.
- They practised Puranic traditions and constructed many temples.
- Their period is remembered as ‘Golden Age’ in Indian History.
I. Conceptual Understanding
From what sources do we learn about Mouryan Empire ?
We come to know about this empire from several books written around this time. One important book is
- Arthasastra written by a minister of Chandragupta called KautilyAnswer:
- Another was written by Magasthenese, an ambassador of a Greek King in the court of Chandragupta
- We also Learn a lot about these times froth inscriptions engraved on the orders of Ashoka in various parts of his empire.
- It is said that Chanakya or Kautilya who was the minister of Chandragupta wrote Arthasastra on how to conquer and rule kingdoms.
- This book advises kings on how to protect themselves from conspiracies, how to tax different kinds of professions, and what kinds of resources were available in different parts of Indian subcontinent etc.
What is the difference between the Mahajanapadas and the Empires ?
|1. About 2500 years ago some Janapadas became more important than others. Most Mahajanapadas had capital city and many of these were fortified.||1. The large kingdoms are called empires and their kings are called emperors.|
|2. Most of the Mahajanapadas were ruled by kings. They lived in capital cities.||2. The emperors would also send instructions to the Governors through messengers.|
|3. We get to know much about these villages and towns from two kinds of sources.
1) Archaeological excavations.
|3. We come to know about the empires from several books. Eg: Arthasastra of Koutilya denotes the rule of Chandraguptha MauryAnswer:|
|4. Mahajanapadas were situated on the Ganges 2500 years ago.||4. Beginning of Mauryan empire was more than 2300 years ago.|
What methods were used by the Emperor to control the area under his direct control ?
The Mauryans ruled different parts of the empire differently. The area around Pataliputra was under the direct control of the emperor.
- He appointed officials to collect taxes from the people and punished those who disobeyed royal orders.
- The emperor issued orders which were carried by messengers to the officials.
- The emperor supervised them with the help of ministers and members of the royal family.
- There were also spies who collected information on what was going on and how the officers were working and reported to the emperor.
- There were other areas or provinces which were ruled from provincial capitals like Takshashila, Ujjain or Suvarnagiri.
- These were ruled by royal princes who were sent as governors. They could take decisions about their provinces and probably had their own officials and army to help them.
- The governors also took the help of important families of the region who knew the customs and rules followed in the province.
- The Mouryans probably made special arrangements to control them.
What do you think the farmers, craftsmen, traders, forest dwellers and herders got in return for the taxes they paid ?
- The Mauryan emperors were able to get taxes from all these people.
- These people got all the facilities they needed in return for the taxes they paid.
What was Ashoka’s Dhamma ?
Ashoka’s dhamma did not involve worship of a god, or performance of sacrifice. He felt that just as a father tries to teach his children, he had a duty to instruct his subjects. He was also inspired by the teachings of the BuddhAnswer: There were a number of problems that troubled him. People in the empire followed different religions and this sometimes led to conflict. Animals were sacrificed. Slaves and servants were ill treated.
Besides, there were quarrels in families and amongst neighbours. Ashoka felt it was his duty to solve these problems. So, he appointed officials, known as the “dhamma mahamatra” who went from place to place teaching people about dhammAnswer: Besides, Ashoka got his messages inscribed on rocks and pillars, instructing his officials to read them to those who were illiterate.
What did Ashoka promote in the place of rituals ?
Ashoka gave a message to his subjects. He quoted that people perform a variety of rituals when they fall ill, when their children get married, when children are born or when they go on a journey. They are not useful. He suggested some practices which would be more fruitful.
These are :
- Being gentle with slaves and servants
- Respecting one’s elders
- Treating all creatures with compassion.
- Giving gifts to brahmins and monks,
- Each one should respect other religion and one should try to understand the main ideas of other religion and respect it.
In what way do you think donations to Buddhist Monasteries helped the Satavahana and Ikshvaka kings ?
Many of these headmen, women of their families, traders, etc., contributed to the Buddhist Monasteries and Stupas built in Amaravati, Bhattiprolu, Vaddlamanu etc. During this time trade with distant places like Bengal and even Rome became very important. We find a large number of coins including Roman coins and also pots made in Roman style.
Merchandise was probably transported in boats along the sea coast and over the Krishna River to the interior towns like Amaravati. Very interestingly the women of the Ikshavaka family were devoted to Buddhist Saints and made large donations to the famous stupa and monasteries of Nagarjuna KondAnswer: A very large monastery and stupa was built at this place.
Do you think the performance of expensive yagnas and claiming to be the descendents of Rama would have helped the Ikshvakas to establish their claim to rule all the clans ?
- Shantamula and Virapurushadatta are important kings of Ikshvaka dynasty.
- They tried to unite various headmen and chiefs by marrying people from other tribes.
- To show their distinctiveness conducted expensive yagnas and claimed to be descendents of RamAnswer:
- Interestingly, the women of Ikshvaka family were devoted to Buddhism.
- In the light of above things, I don’t think the above have helped them to establish their claim to rule all the clans.
II. Reading the Text (given), Understanding and Interpretation
Why do you think the emperor needed spies within the empire ?
- To rule and administrate such vast’ empires the emperor needed spies.
- Otherwise he had to take many internal disturbances.
- These spies collected information on what was going on and how the officers were working and reported to the emperor.
Why do you think the Mauryan emperors need such diverse resources from various regions ?
- Some of the areas like the Ganges Valley, the Krishna river valley, Malwa, Gujarat and Punjab were very fertile and had densely settled villages and towns.
- Some other areas were important for the trade and crafts.
- Some regions were important for the mining of precious metals like gold and gem stones.
- The Mauryan emperors were able to get resources and taxes from all these different kinds of places and peoples.
- They collected taxes and tributes from these areas also probably in the form of hides, wild animals, precious stones, gold, etc.
- The emperors appoint officials to collect taxes from the people and punish those who disobey the royal orders.
- They need resources to rule the vast empire.
In what way do you think cities like Takshashila, Suvarnagiri were important for the Mauryans ?
The provincial capitals like Takshashila, Ujjain or Suvarnagiri were ruled by royal princes who were sent as governors. Between these provinces there were vast areas which were forested or did not have many villages or cities. But these were important as they had the roads on which traders, armies and messengers had to travel. The Mauryans probably made special arrangements to control them.
Through these roads the Mauryans reached areas like Suvarnagiri in which were situated gold mines, or Takshashila from where they could get goods from other countries. They collected taxes and tributes from these areas also probably in the form of hides, wild animals, precious stones, gold. etc. Probably, the forest tribes were allowed to live without much interference. The above regions were important for the mining of precious metals like gold and gem stones. They were good resources for the Mauryan empires.
What were the problems that Ashoka wanted to solve by introducing Dhamma ?
There were number of problems that troubled him.
- People in the empire followed different religions and this sometimes lend to conflict.
- Animals were sacrificed. Slaves and servants were ill treated.
- Besides, there were quarrels in families and amongst neighbours.
- Some people followed rituals as usual.
- Ashoka felt it was his duty to solve these problems.
- So he appointed officials, known as the “dhamma mahamatra” who went from place to place teaching people about dhamma
How did the Kalinga war influence the emperor Ashoka ?
Ashoka fought a war to conquer KalingAnswer: He won the war. The effects of the war were:
- In the battle field more than a lakh of people were killed. The people were captured as prisoners of the war.
- Ashoka was horrified when he saw the violence and bloodshed.
- He immediately took a vow and decided not to make war in future.
- He decided to rule the empire following a policy of Dhamma with peace and non-violence.
- Ashoka also became a follower of Buddhism.
- He also taught Dharma or the mortal principles through the inscriptions installed at different parts of his empire. Thus the Kalinga war influenced the Emperor Ashoka
III. Attinformation Skills
Read the following passage.
Sometime after the end of the Satavahana kingdom, Ikshvakas assumed royal titles and established a kingdom with its capital in Vijayapuri which was probably located near Nagarjunakonda on the banks of the Krishna River. The important kings of this dynasty are Shantamula and VirapurushadattAnswer: These kings tried to bring together the various headmen and small chiefs by marrying people from other tribes. At the same time, they sought to show their distinctiveness by performing vagnas like AshvamedhAnswer: VajapeyAnswer: etc., and made large donations to Brahmins.
1) Where is Vijayapuri ?
It is located near Nagarjunakonda on the bank of Krishna River.
2) Who established a kingdom after Satavahanas ?
After the end of the Satavahana kingdom a family who called themselves Ikshavakas establised a kingdom.
3) Who are the important kings of this dynasty ?
The important kings of this dynasty are Shantamula and VirapurushadattAnswer:
4) What are the expensive yagnas ?
Ashvamedha and Vajapeya, etc.
5) What did these kings try to do ?
These kings tried to bring together the various headmen and small chiefs by intermarrying with their families.
IV. Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning
Write the details about Mauryan empire.
- Capital : Pataliputra (Modern day Patna)
- Language (s) : Eg : Magadhi, Prakrit, other Prakrits, Sanskrit.
- Religion : Historical era Established Disestablised
- Government : Absolute Monarchy as described in the ArthashastrAnswer:
- Samraat (Emperor) : 320 – 298 BCE Chandragupta Maurya / 187 – 180 BCE Brhadrata
- Historical era : Antiquity
- Established : 322 BC
- Disestablised : 185 BC
- Area : 50,00,000 km2 (1,930,511 sq miles)
- Currency : Panas
- Today part of : India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
V. Mapping Skills
Mapping the Following on the given map.
Map Reading :
1. Observe the following map.
Answer the following questions :
1) Write some important cities in Gupta Empire.
2) Mention the cities that belong to present Gujarat state.
Vallabhi and Bharuch
3) Pataliputra is now called
4) What are coastal cities mentioned in the map ?
Madurai, Poompuhar, Arikamedu, Mahabalipuram, etc.
5) Which state does Ujjain belong to ?
VI. Appreciation and Sensitivity
1. “The Mauryans probably made special arrangements to control them.” Explain.
Between the provinces there were vast areas which were forested or did not have many villages or cities. But these were important as they had the roads on which traders, armies and messengers had to travel. The Mauryans probably made special arrangements to control them. Through these roads the Mauryans reached areas like Suvarnagiri in which were situated gold mines, or Takshashila from where they could get goods from other countries.
1. If you find any old inscription in your neighbourhood, get some more information about it.
Student’s self exercise.
TS 6th Class Social 11th Lesson Notes – First Empires
- Empire : The largest kingdoms are called empires and their kings are called emporers.
- Arthasastra : It was written by Chanakya or Koutilya who was the minister of Chandraguptha. It advises kings on how to protect themselves from conspiracies, how to tax different kinds of professions.
- Dharmamahamatras : The officials during Ashoka region. Who observed the people whether they followed the Dharma or not.
- Dhamma : Dhamma is a Prakrit word which means religion.
- Spies (Spy-spies) : A person employed by a govt., to obtain secret information.
- Yagnas : The gods were worshipped by means of sacrifice and prayers.Prayers were offered in the open air by chanting of hymns and performance of Yagnas and homas. The Gods were given an important place in the religion of the early Vedic period.
- Monastery : A Monastery is popularly known as Vihara. It is a permanent place where monks and nuns of Buddhism and Jainism lived.
- Subcontinent : A large land mass that forms part of a continent; especially the part of Asia that includes India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
- Ikshvakas : Some time after the end of the Satavahana kingdom, a family who called themselves Ikshvakas assumed royal titles and established a kingdom with its capital in Vijayapuri which was located near Nagarjuna Konda on the bank of Krishna river.
- Mourya : Some years after Mahapadma Nanda a young man called Chandraguptha Mourya became the king of Magadha. He started the Maurya dynasty (a family whose members become the rulers are after the other is called dynasty)
- Satavahanas : Satavahanas or Andhras who managed to build a large kingdom which extended from the banks of the Narmada river to the Krishna-Godavari delta.
- Kalinga : It is the ancient name of Coastal Odisha.