Telangana SCERT 6th Class Social Study Material Telangana 19th Lesson – Language, Writing and Great Books Textbook Questions and Answers.
Language, Writing and Great Books – TS 6th Class Social 18th Lesson Questions and Answers Telangana
What is the importance of languages ?
Language has become so much a part of our lives that we seldom stop to think about it. We think and understand with the help of language.
The importance of language :
- First of all we use language to help us to organise and plan our own work.
- Secondly we use language to attract the attention of others and also ask them to do
something on the other. .
- Thirdly, we use language to create new things and just to have fun.
- Fourthly, we try to understand the world around us with the help of language.
- Fifthly, we use language to tell others about what we feel and experience.
- Language has helped people to pass to their children information about what they saw, what they learnt and what they felt.
- Language brings together people who are far away from each other.
How can you say that Aryabhatta was the father of Astronomy ?
Many people felt that the stars, planets sun and moon contained secrets about the entire universe and we should understand them better by observing them more carefully calculating their movements. One such person was Aryabhatta who wrote his book called Aryabhattiyam in which he said that the earth rotates causing day and night and that actually the sun did not go around the earth people did not agree with him in those days.
Differentiate between Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita.
- In earlier times there were many people who studied why people fell ill, and how they can be cursed how people hurt in wars could be healed.
- They collected herbs and other things and prepared medicines and 4Tso wrote about these medicines and how to lead healthy lives.
|Charaka Samhita||Sushruta Samhita|
|1. It denotes suitable medicine prepared by herbs for illness.||1. It focuses on Surgery,|
|2. It denotes why people fell ill, and how they can be cured.||2. It reveals the illness through surgery,|
Mention a few inventions in Mathematics.
- Our ancestors were fascinated by the heavenly bodies like the sun and moon, the stars and the planets.
- They observed them day after day and noted the things in the sky kept changing over time. *
- They noted all these carefully and found out that the skies had two or three distinct kind of bodies.
- Aryabhatta wrote his book called Aryabhattiyam in which he said that the earth rotates causing day and night and that actually the sun didn’t go around the earth.
- Aryabhatta and another mathematicians of ancient India also adopted the decimal system of numbers and place value system writing numbers the way we do today.
Look at a currency note and write down the different scripts on them. Identify the language. Is the same script used for different languages ? Which are they ?
Different languages written or printed on,the currency note are 15.
Apart from these Hindi is also printed. Different languages using same script are
a) Assamese, Bengali,
b) Hindi, Sanskrit, Konkani, Marathi, Maithili
c) Kashmiri, Urdu.
Refer to any general knowledge book, list out and tabulate five great books in Telugu language and other languages.
|1) Mahabharatam||1) Mahabharata||1) Tolkappiyam|
|2) Ramayanam||2) Ramayana||2) Tirukkural|
|3) Bhagavatam||3) Asthadhyayi||3) Silappadikaram|
|4) Shringara Naishadam||4) Amarakosha||4) Manimekalai|
|5) Dashakumaracharitam||5) Buddhacharita||5) Ramayan|
How did the work done in various fields by the ancient Indian scientists inspire the present time scientists ?
- The work done in various fields by the ancient Indian scientists inspired the present time scientists in many ways.
- The books of Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Sainhita laid foundations for. Ayurveda and many scientists are working in the field.
- Books on astronomy and mathematics by Aryabhatta, Varahamihira, etc. are of great help to present day scientists for their inventions.
- Apart from these there are many inventions in botany, physical science, organic and inorganic chemistry at present, vow their roots to ancient Indian scientists works.
Locate the following in the map India.
b) Tamil Nadu
c) Uttar Pradesh
e) West Bengal
Read the para under the title The great Epics’ of page 146 (165) and comment on it.
Epics are deeds of heroic and legendary figures. They describe conflicts between good and evil, dharma ’ and ‘adharmaEvery country has its own epics and in India, we have two important epics – the Rarnayana and the Mahabharata. The Ramayana is the story of Rama and Sita and the fight between Rama and Ravana. The Ramayana tries to portray an ideal human being – an ideal son, an ideal wife, an ideal brother, an ideal ruler etc. This epic, composed by Valmiki, is considered to be the first Kavya in Sanskrit literature. Initially, it was recited orally by wandering preachers and later on edited and written down.
The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are the two great epics of our country. The Ramayana is the very soul of IndiAnswer:It is a complete guide to God realization, the path of nighteousness. The ideas of man are beautifully portrayed in it. Sage Valmiki wrote Ramayana
The Mahabharata was written by famous sage Vedavyas. This epic talks about the importance of following one’s assigned duties in life. It is a brilliant portrayal of ancient politics. It also tells us about the Lord Krishna.
I. Conceptual Understanding
What is the Indo Aryan family ?
There is another language family in India called the Indo – Aryan family. The famous languages of this family are Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi etc. There are some other language families in IndiAnswer:As people travelled and mixed with each other their languages too mixed with each other and people adopted several words from each other’s languages. Thus in Teiugu today uses many words taken from Sanskrit, Marathi, Arabic, Persian and English.
Write about Sangam literature in Tamil.
- Sangam refers to the assembly of scholars and poets in Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas.
- Tamil was the language that was spoken in a large part of South India in the early days.
- Sangam literature is a collection of poems composed by a large number of poets and poetesses.
- They write about heroes who bravely fought wars in defence of their tribes, about the love of brave heroes and beautiful girls, about the beauty of the landscapes and seasons and their effect on human beings.
- This Sangam literature refers to the history and culture of ancient kingdoms of Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas.
Narrate the two great Epics – Ramayana and Mahabharata,
Epics are deeds of great heroes and heroines. They describe conflicts between heroes and evil forces. Every country lias its epic and in India we have two important epics – Ramayana and MahabharatAnswer:Ramayana is the story of Rama and Sita and the fight between Rama and Ravan who had carried off Sita to LankAnswer:This epic is considered the first kavya in Sanskrit literature and composed by Vaimiki. Initially it was related orally by wandering preachers and later on edited and written down.
Mahabharata is the story of the conflict between two sets of cousins (Kauravas and Pandavas) over who should rule the kingdom, ft finally ended in a great war which was won by Pandavas with the help of Krishna. It is one of the largest poems in the world and contains hundreds of small stories. This was composed by Vyasa and again recited orally by wandering story tellers and eventually written down.
What did the people write it on ?
- In the beginning people probably wrote on cloth, leaves, barks, etc. which decayed and got destroyed with time.
- Some people even wrote on pots by scratching on them.
- Some of these pots have survived.
- However, the earliest waiting of a long text that Has survived to our own time in Ashoka’s inscriptions which were engraved on rocks or stone pillars.
- In many parts of South India people wrote on palm leaves which were cut to a definite size.
- They used a pin like pen to scratch on the dried leaf and coloured it with black ink.
- In North India they used the barks of Bhoja trees which grew in the Himalayas.
- These barks peeled off just like paper and one could easily write on them using ink. In those days paper was not in use.
What are the different types of scripts mentioned in this lesson ?
- We write and read languages with the help of scripts.
- We use many kinds of scripts. We use a) Roman script b) Devanagari script c) Arabic script d) Telugu script and e) Tamil script.
- Actually it took human beings thousands of years to develop scripts like the ones we use today.
- In the beginning they just drew pictures instead of writing. To say that goat is running they would make a picture of a goat and another picture of two running legs.
- Slowly the scripts as we know them developed.
- Four thousand years ago the people of Indus Valley used scripts, but we don’t know how to read them.
II. Reading the Text (given), Understanding and Interpretation
Why are there so many languages ?
- Language is developed by a group of people living together. They decide to call the drink that quenches their thirst as water.
- Another group of people who may be living far away from the first group may decide to call the same drink as NEELLU. Another group may call it as THANNI.
- They mean the same but they use different sounds or symbols for it.
- That is why people developed different languages such as English, Sanskrit, Persian, Chinese, Swahili, Hindi, Telugu etc.
- Often it also happened that one group of people who spoke a language got separated into different sub groups and each group in turn developed different languages based on the old language.
- We say that all these languages belong to one family.
- Thus, originally a group of people spoke a language which today we call early Dravidian.
- When the people who spoke this language began to live in distant places and mixed with other people, they developed new languages.
- Among them are Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, gondi etc. These are today mainly spoken in South India.
Explain about oral literature.
- Many of stories were not written down but told by one generation to another generation to another just like our parents told us. These are called oral literature.
- That is literature which has been passed from mouth to mouth.
- This was the earliest form of literature.
- The earliest people composed poems, songs and stories and told them to their children who in turn told their children.
- They also passed on their understanding of the world through sayings and proverbs which too were similarly taught.
Why were Jataka tales delightful stories which we may like to read ?
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. His followers wrote many stories about these births of Buddha and compiled them in the form of Jataka stories. These are delightful stories which we may like to read. These too were collected and written down around 1600-1800 years ago.
III. Information Skills
1. Read the following passage and answer the following questions.
Historians believe that even though these epics were composed much earlier they were given their final form about 1600 years ago.
You had read about Gautama Buddha in an earlier lesson. His followers believed that he had been born several times earlier to preach dharma to fellow human beings and animals.They wrote many stories about Buddha’s previous births and compiled them in the form of Jataka stories. These are delightful stories, which you might enjoy reading. These too were collected and written down around 1600-1800 years ago.
Anwer the following questions :
1) When were the epics given final form ?
They were given their final form about 1600 years ago.
2) Who was the founder of Buddhism ?
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.
3) What was the belief of Buddha’s followers ?
His followers, believed that he had taken several births earlier to preach dharma to fellow human beings and animals. .
4) When were Jataka tales written down ?
Jataka stories were collected and written down around 1600-1800 years ago.
IV. Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning
What was the Buddha trying to teach sorrowful mother ? (By the story of KisagotamJ)
- Once there was a woman named Kisagotami, whose son had died.
- She was so sad that she roamed through the streets of the city carrying the child with her asking for help to bring him back to life.
- A kind man took her to BuddhAnswer:Then Buddha asked her to bring him a handful of mustard seeds, and he will bring her child back to life.
4) He also said the seeds must come from the, house of a family where nobody has died. ‘
5) She couldn’t bring seeds any where.
6) She returned with sad. Then Buddha taught her death is common thing as birth. No one can escape from dfeath. Man is mortal.
Why is Ramayana considered the first Kavya ?
- Every country has its epic and in India we have two important epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
- Ramayana is the story of Rama and Sita and the fight between Rama and Ravan who had carried off Sita to Lanka.
- This epic is considered the first Kavya in Sanskrit literature.
- And it was composed by Valmiki.
- Initially it was related orally by wandering preachers and later on edited and written down.
VI. Appreciation and Sensitivity
Explain, how human beings were developed scripts like the ones we use today?
In the beginning they just drew pictures instead of writing. To say that the goat is ‘ running, they would make a picture of a goat and another picture of two running legs! Slowly the scripts as we know them developed. Four thousand years ago the people of Indus Valley used scripts, but we don’t’know how to read them.
मेरा नाम रघु – Hindi
నా పేరు రఘు – Telugu
Listen to different languages on TV or radio and try to think of the similarities and differences.
Student’s Self Exercise.
TS 6th Class Social 19th Lesson Notes – Language, Writing and Great Books
- Epic – Epics are deeds of great heroes and heroines. They describe conflicts between heroes and evil forces. Every country has its epic and in India we have two important epics – Ramayana and Mahabharata.
- inscription – a thing inscribed, as on a monumental or in a book.
- Ayurveda – Ayurveda is a type of traditional Hindu medicine that treats illness using a combination of foods, herbs and breathing exercises.
- Sangam Literature – Sangam literature is a collection of poems composed by a large number of poets and poetesses. They write about heroes who bravely fought was indefence of their tribes.
- Decimal system – It is based on or counted in tens or tenths etc.
- Language – The system of communication in speech and writing that is used by people of particular country or area.