Telangana SCERT TS 6th Class Social Study Material Pdf 5th Lesson – Penugolu – A Village on the Hills Textbook Questions and Answers.
Penugolu – A Village on the Hills – TS 6th Class Social 5th Lesson Questions and Answers Telangana
What are the various ways in which the Koyas are dependent upon the forests around them ?
The forest is a great storehouse of food for the Koyas and they depend upon the forest for its produce throughout the year.
- The tribal calendar is marked by various seasons for collecting various edible fruits, tubers, nuts, green leaves and even hunting small animals.
- Two important forest products collected by them are honey and bomboo shoots.
- The shoots are cooked after the upper covering layers are removed. This is considered a tasty delicacy.
- Another important source of food for the families is the juice of Caryota palm (Jilugu), especially in summer.
- With the Bamboo they make baskets, winnowing fans, mats, implements like digging sticks, bows and arrows.
- They sell all these in weekly markets ie.. “Santha”. With the money they earn by selling their produce, they purchase their daily needs, clothes and other requirements.
List out various means of living in a hill region.
- There are various means of living in the hilly region.
- Podu cultivation is the main means of living. .
- Maintaining kitchen garden is another means of living.
- At times poultry like rearing of goats, sheep cattle and dogs is means of living.
- Collection of minor forest produce is also an important means of living.
- Cutting bamboo, making baskets and winnows, chicken coops, etc. fetches a living in hills.
Why do the Koyas move from one hill to another for growing crops ?
- Koyas move from one hill to another for growing crops.
- Each village has a hill where forest can be cleared for farming.
- After growing crops for few years, they leave this patch of hill to allow the forest to grow again.
- They move to another hill where they clear-another patch of land to grow crops.
Compare the nature of the fields in the three villages that you studied and bring out their similarities and differences.
|Nature of fields|
|1) Most soils here are alluvial and black soils.||1) Half of agricultural land has red soils.||1) A patch of hill area is cleared and used for farming. .|
|2) Nearer to river there are sandy soils.||2) Fertile black soils constitute 20%.||2) After few years it is left like that to grow forests.|
|3) If water is available 3 crops can be raised per year.||3) Choudu and Garuvu soils are of 30%.||3) A new patch of another hill is identified for farming.|
|4) Borewells with submersible pumps provide irrigation.||4) ‘A chain of tanks’ is the feature of water resource here.||4) They produce a variety of crops.|
|5) Various crops, vegetables and orchards are grown.||5) Borewells are expensive and risky.||5) They dribble seeds digging with sticks.|
Read the various sub-headings in the last three chapters. Fill the following table with information regarding various aspects of the three villages. (Add more rows if necessary – write “no information” if you cannot find similar headings)
|Sub headings / Headings||Hill village (Penugolu)||Plateau village (Dokur)||Plain village (Penamakuru)|
|1. Soils||No Information||Red, black, choudu and garusu soils.||Alluvial, black and sandy soils.|
|2. Rainfall||Seasonal rains. South – West and North – East.||Rain is scanty and irregular, leads to drought||Rains from June to October. No rains after October.|
|3. Irrigation||No information||‘Chain of tanks’, borewells||Canal water, borewells.|
|4. Crops & agriculture||Podu cultivation, jowar, maize, Brinjal millets, sesamum, etc.||Cotton, groundnut, castor, paddy, fruit orchards, etc.||Paddy, turmeric, yam, banana, vegetables, fruit orchards, etc.|
|5. Other activities||Minor forest products,||cattle rearing, carpentry, metal work, rice milling.||Animal rearing, basket weaving, poultry, rice mill and pig rearing, etc.|
Your village/town is currently located in type of land form. Imagine that your village is located in a different type of land form and write about it.
- Our village is located in plateau land form.
- Here the rain is scanty and irregular.
- Soils are not much fertile.
- Borewells here are expensive and risky.
- Various crops and fruit orchards are grown.
- Apart from agriculture other activities like carpentry, metal work and rice mills are here.
Discussion : What will happen, if there are no trees ? Discuse, its effect and our re-sponsibility.
Forests act as giant air filters for the world. Trees purify the air absorbing pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, reducing pollution. Trees also help prevent topsoil erosion because they break the force of wind and rain on soil their roots bind the soil, and their decayed, falling leaves are absorbed by the earth and enrich the soil. Trees conserve rainwater and reduce water runoff and sediment deposit after storms.
Additionally, trees provide a supply of timber, seeds and fruits. Further, dead trees that fall and get buried in the soil eventually provide fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products, among other things. Trees can also act as noise filters, Trees muffle urban clamor almost as well as walls do. Trees planted at strategic locations can decrease loud noises from airports and highways.
I. Conceptual Understanding
Describe the cultural activities of these tribes.
They worship Gods of Nature and every family has got their Kula devatha i.e., family God/Goddess. They post a long pole in front of the house and tie some neem twigs to it. They call it as Muthyalamma and worship it. Only men of the village go to the forest and offer prayers to their God in the forest. The festivals too represent the changes in the season. The celebrations of the tribals are Kodathala panduga (Peddala panduga) Bhimini panduga (festival of Vippa poovu). They celebrate Kodathala panduga in September and offer vegetables to their deity and eat it as prasadam. During these festivals all members of the tribe get together even if they are living in separate settlements.
What is Jhum cultivation / Shifting cultivation ?
Konda Reddys grow crops in a distinct way called “Podu”. Podu is an ancient practice in the hilly regions. It is also called shifting cultivation or Jhum cultivation. It is practised widely in Chattisgarh and the north eastern states like Arunachal Pradesh.
What forest products do you eat ?
The forest is a great storehouse of food for the tribals and they depend upon the forest for its produce through out the year. The tribal calendar is marked by various seasons for collecting various edible fruits, tubers, nuts, green leaves and even hunting animals. Tender bamboo shoots are called “Kari Kommulu”. Another important source of food for the families is the juice of Caryota palm Qilugu) especially in summer. I eat edible fruits tubers, nuts, honey, green leaves, etc.
What are the reasons for the reduction of podu area in recent years ?
Podu means shifting cultivation. Now-a-days podu cultivation was reduced because to protect the forest area and maintain ecological balance.Due to podu cultivation the soil erosion will be high, at the same time the percentage of forest area is reduced. Due to this environmental pollution increases highly. Global warming (Temperature) will increase, people suffered with these situations. Rain fall will reduce. Totally environment will be damaged and disturbed.
What is their kitchen garden?
The huts are located in a large areAnswer: Around the house they make bamboo fencing. They level the land and add organic matter to make the soil fertile. This is their kitchen garden. This is a major source of their food. In kitchen garden maize, vegetables like beans, gourd, chillies, etc., are grown.
II. Reading the Text (given), Understanding and Interpretation
Write in brief about Bamboo.
Bamboos are abundant in the f est. They form part and parcel of the lives of triba s. Apart from using bamboos themselves, they also make baskets, winnows, chicken coops etc and take them to the santhas for sale. In many areas these tribes are approached by Paper Mill’s agents to cut and supply bamboos for the mills. Cash income earned from selling bamboo-ware or from labour is used to buy rice, cloth, utensils etc., from the local market.
The tribal people in Penugolu worship Gods of Nature. The festivals follow the changes in the season. They worship stone idol of Muthyalamma under tamarind Wee. They celebrate Yellanampadarn (bhumi pooja) Kodathala panduga (peddalapanduga), Bhimini panduga (festival as vippa poovu, etc.) Comment on tribal worship and festivals.
- The tribal people worship gods of nature.
- They worship stone idol.
- They also worship Burra and Thadu.
- They celebrate festivals like Yellanampadarn, Kodathala panduga and Bhimini panduga, etc.
III. Information Skills
1. Read the following passage and answer the following questions.
As we know, bamboo is abundant in the forests. Apart from it being a food source, bamboo is used to build houses, fences, etc. People also make baskets, winnows, chicken coops, etc. with it and sell them in the weekly fairs. Paper Mills also have the right to collect bamboo from the forest. There are agents who employ people in the village to cut and supply bamboo for the mills. This provides some earning opportunities to them. Initially, the wages were very low but they have increased slowly over the last few years. These wage workers go collect for bamboo after the cropping season. The yearn about Rs. 150 per day.
1) Which are abundant in the forest ? :
Bamboos are abundant in the forest.
2) What products do they make with bamboos ?
They make baskets, chicken coops, etc.
3) What do the tribes supply to Paper Mill agents ?
They supply bamboos to Paper Mill agents.
4) Initially how were the payments ?
Their payments were very low. .
5) What do the tribes purchase by selling bamboo – ware ?
IV. Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning
Do you think it is important to preserve the life-style of the tribes ? Give reasons.
It is very important to preserve the life style of the tribes. Many tribal communities live in the hill tracts of this region. The Koyas are a tribe of the region with their own speciaJ life style. These tribes live in very small habitations. There tribes build machans and guard the fields from wild animals and birds till the harvest is over in December. Each settlement ha§ about seven or eight huts.
There are nearly 10 such settlements on the hill top. The family is very important to these tribes as all members of a family work together on the fields. They worship Gods of nature and every family has got their Kula devatha i.e., family God/ Goddess. The festivals too represent the changes in the season. Yellanampadam is the most important one. In September they celebrate Kodathala panduga, Bhimini Panduga etc. So the Government should give support to them to preserve their life style.
Why do you think they grow so many crops ?
In the Penugolu village it stops raining around November. So, the Koyas use their axes to clear patches of forest in the month of December. They allow the logs of wood to lie and dry on the field for a few months. They set fire to them in April or May just before it rains. By the time the rains come the ground in covered with ashes.
When the rains arrive in June they dibble seeds with the help of digging sticks. Or they sow seeds of many crops t ogether by broadcast method. They do not use plough or hoe nor do they use any fertilizer. One reason for not using plough on the hill slopes is that it will lead to very easy run off of the top soil and make the soil infertile.
What will happen if they have to grow crops on the same field every year ?
After cultivating the podu land for 3 or 4 years, they leave it for 3 to 5 years and cultivate another patch of land. By then the forest grows again on the old land and they cultivate it in the same way. They grow mixed crops without any irrigation, depending fully on rains. This normally gives them enough food for six months. If they cultivate every year the same land, they won’t get enough food.
The area of forests is decreasing day by day due to indiscriminate cutting. What measures should be taken to stop this ?
We can stop people from cutting down the forests by educating them on the dangers of deforestation and how to prevent it. Some of the solutions of deforestation are recycling paper, cars, glass and plastic, buying organic fruits and vegetables, etc.
Do wild animals attack farms in your area too? What do people do to protect the crops ?
In our (coastal) area also wild animals, and birds attack the fields. Tribes build machans and guard the fields from wild animals and birds till the harvest is over. In coastal area people use electrified fencing, and make different kinds of “Dishti Bommalu” with sticks and pots. To preserve crops, they use rat killers in many areas. In some areas the farmers make “fire” to send away the animals.
V. Mapping Skills
Identify the following from the map.
b) River Godavari
c) Badradri Kothagudem District
d) Jayasankar Bhupala palli District
e) Mahabubabad District
g) Warangal rural District
h) Kannayya Gudem
VI. Appreciation and Sensitivity
How are festivals linked with the life of Koyas in Penugolu ?
- They celebrate kodathala panduga in September in which they offer vegetables to their deity and then eat them.
- Ml major activities like sowing, harvest, collection of fruits from the forest, etc. begin after these festivals.
- During these festivals all the members of the tribe gather even if they are living in separate settlements.
TS 6th Class Social 5th Lesson Notes – Penugolu – A Village on the Hills
- Podu : Shifting cultivation or Jhumming cultivation
- Tribe : Two or three generations live together in small settlements or villages. Most families are related to one another and groups of such families form a tribe.
- Bamboo : Wood flow Bamboo trees. Used in basket weaving furniture making etc.
- Kitchen garden : A part of garden/yard where you grow vegetables and fruit for your own use
- Forest products : Edible fruits, tubers, nuts, green leaves, jilugu honey, medicinal plants are forest products.
- Terrain : An area of land used to refer to an area of land when you are mentioning its natural features
- Dibbling : By the time the rains come the ground is covered with ashes. When the rains arrive in June they dibble seeds with the help of digging sticks.
- Hill : An area of land that is higher than the land around it, but not as high as mountain.
- Customs : The government department that collects taxes on goods bought and sold and on goods brought into the country and that checks what is brought in.