SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 5th Lesson Europe Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 5th Lesson Europe
7th Class Social Studies 5th Lesson Europe Textbook Questions and Answers
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The Atlantic Ocean has a deep impact on the climate of Europe as well as on the life and livelihood of the people of Europe. Collect relevant information and write an essay on the theme.
Europe has four dominant types of climate-maritime in the south and mountain in the lands. The maritime climate has moderate temperatures in both summer and winter.
The climate of western Europe is far more moderate due to the marine influences of the relatively warm waters of the North Atlantic Drift, which are brought onshore by the prevailing Westerly winds. The major air pressure systems include the Icelandic. low, dominant in winter but influential all year, which is the origin of cyclonic storms. So impact in the changing weather conditions in western and northern Europe.
The North Atlantic drift brings warmer weather to Europe. Temperatures on the European continent are about 15°F warmer than other areas of the same latitude.
Answer these questions with the help of the maps given in the lesson:
a) Which of the following is not a landlocked (surrounded by land) country?
b) Which mountains lie between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea?
c) Which countries are on the shores of the Arctic Ocean?
Norway, Sweden, and Russia.
d) Can a ship sail from the Black Sea to the Atlantic Ocean? If yes, trace the route it will have to take.
Yes, a ship can sail from the Black Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. The route is – the Black Sea to waters between Turkey and Bulgaria → to the Mediterranean Sea → Atlantic Ocean.
Why are harbors built-in deep gulfs or bays?
- Bays and gulfs are parts of the sea enclosed by land on three sides.
- In a bay, the land curves inwards and the mouth of the bay is usually wide as in the Bay of Bengal.
- A gulf is a narrow inlet of the sea and has a narrow mouth.
- Since the bays and gulfs are protected from the storms of the high seas they are very useful for building harbors where ships can be safely anchored and cargo loaded or unloaded.
- Deep gulfs or bays are preferred for building harbors as Large ships can be anchored in them.
- Ships need deep waters so that their bottoms do not touch the seafloor.
Why are the winters less severe in Western Europe than in Eastern Europe?
- Besides its distance from the Equator, the climate of Europe is influenced by another factor – the Atlantic Ocean and the winds blowing from it.
- This impact is felt more by the regions along the Atlantic Ocean than the ones which are far inland.
- In the winters it is quite cold in Western Europe but it is even colder in Eastern Europe,
- Thus countries like Poland and Russia have severe winters while France and Great Britain are comparatively warmer.
- Russians winters are so cold that the rivers and even the nearby seas freeze
- However, this does not happen in the countries of West Europe along the sea coast.
- This difference must be because of the nearness of Western Europe to the Atlantic Ocean.
Name four countries on the coast of the Black Sea.
The following are the countries on the coast of the Black Sea.
How do the Westerlies benefit the people of Western Europe?
The Westerlies, which blow throughout the year also bring ample moisture to Northern and Western Europe. Since these winds blow from the sea they carry a lot of moisture and regularly cause rainfall. This is why it rains throughout the year in Northern and Western Europe. While it rains only for a few months in our country, there are light showers all around the year in Western Europe. The skies there are usually clouded. While we, in India, eagerly await cool showers, the people of Western Europe long for bright sunny days.
Western Europe also benefits in other ways from the Gulf Streams. The warm currents are very good for fish breeding as they contain ample food materials ic’- the fishes. As a result, the fishery industry is very well developed in the North Sea near Britain. This part of the North Sea is called ‘Dogger Bank’. Fish is an important part of the food of the Europeans and fishing is a very important industry in Europe.
What are the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate? Name the countries which have a Mediterranean climate.
The countries of Southern Europe have the Mediterranean Sea to their south. They are called ‘Mediterranean Countries’. The lands along the Mediterranean Sea have a distinct climate called the ‘Mediterranean climate’.
The Mediterranean countries are the southernmost countries of Europe. As a result, the winters here are not too cold and summers are warm. It does not rain all through the year as in Western Europe. The Westerlies blow here during the winter months only. These winds bring rain to the Mediterranean countries. In other words, it rains here only in winter. Such rainy winters and dry summers are termed as a Mediterranean climate. Several regions in other continents too have a Mediterranean climate. This climate is very good for growing juicy fruits.
The Mediterranean type of climate is found in Portugal, Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Croatia, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Ukraine.
What are the factors that limit European agriculture?
A very large part of Europe is mountainous and not suitable for agriculture. In eastern and northern Europe, it is not possible to cultivate land in winter, due to extreme cold. As a result, it is possible to rain only one crop in a year.
Name the important crops of southern Europe.
Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sugar – beet, potato, and fruits are the important crops in southern Europe.
How can you say that trade and cultural relations have been developed among the countries due to the discovery of new sea routes by European sailors?
- Europeans overseas expansion led to the contact between the old and new worlds producing the Columbian exchange, named after Columbus.
- It involved the transfer of goods unique from one hemisphere to another.
- It led to the age of Imperialism, where European colonial powers came to control most of the planet.
- The European appetite for trade commodities, empires, and slaves greatly affected many other areas of the world.
So I can say that trade and cultural relations have been developed due to the discovery of new sea routes by European sailors.
Read the last para of this lesson and comment on it.
Industrial Revolution in Europe
The industrial revolution as you know started in England around 1750 and soon factory production spread to France, Holland, Germany, Spain, Russia, etc. Countries like England and Germany, which had large reserves of coal and other minerals, took lead in developing new industries.
However, as times changed, European countries began to use less and less of their own mineral resources and relied on imports from other countries. The old mining towns and old factories were closed down and new factories grew in new areas. Industrialization also enabled the European countries to import agricultural goods from other countries. Thus, they relied less on the agriculture of their countries for their food and raw material requirements. Hence, Europe became dependent upon trade with other countries. Initially, this trade was with their colonies in Asia, Africa, and America. However as the colonies became independent, they had to develop new ways of trading with them.
- The industrial revolution started in England around 1750 and soon factory production spread to France, Holland, Germany, Spain, Russia, etc. Countries like England and Germany which had large reserves of coal and other minerals took lead in developing new industries. –
- However, as times changed, European countries began to use less and less of their own mineral resources and relied on imports from other countries.
- The old mining towns and old factories were closed down and new factories grew in new areas.
- Industrialization also enabled the European countries to import agricultural goods from other countries.
- Thus they relied less on the agriculture of their countries for their food requirements and raw material requirements.
- Hence Europe became dependent upon trade with other countries.
- Initially, this trade was with their colonies in Asia, Africa, and America.
- However as the colonies became independent, they had to develop new ways of trading with them.
How is agriculture similar or different in Europe from that of our country?
How are agricultural practices similar or different in Europe from those practiced in India? Explain.
Indian agriculture is quite different from European agriculture.
- Seasons: In our country, we have three seasons winter, summer, and rain.
- In Europe, they have four seasons winter, spring, summer, and autumn.
- In our country, we have two agricultural seasons Rabi and Kharif mean winter and monsoon. Crops are grown nearly eight to 10 months a year.
- Summer is the season of agriculture in Europe. There is no need for irrigation as the occasional showers are sufficient for the crops. The cultivation is possible only for 6 to 7 months.
- A very large part of Europe is mountainous and not suitable for agriculture.
- In India as much as 55% of the land is cultivable.