AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 4 Plant Kingdom

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material 4th Lesson Plant Kingdom Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material 4th Lesson Plant Kingdom

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is the basis for the classification of Algae?
The basis for the classification of Algae is pigmentation and type of stored food.

Question 2.
When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?
In liver worts, reduction division occurs in sporophyte as a result spores are produced in the capsule.

In Mpsses, reduction division occurs in sporophyte in spore mother cells.

In ferns :
Reduction division occurs in Macro and Micro sporangia to produce Macrospores and Microspores.

In Gymnosperms – Reduction division occurs in Microsporangia and Megasporangia.

In Angiosperms – Reduction division occurs in Microspore Mother cells (Anther), Megaspore Mother cell (ovule).

Question 3.
Differentiate between syngamy and triple fusion.

Syngamy Triple fusion
1. One of the Male gametes released in the embryosac fuses with the egg to form a zygote. This is called syngamy. 1. In this, the 2nd male gamete fuses with the diploid secondary nucleus to produce primary endosperm nucleus. This is Triple fusion.
2. It was discovered by strasberger. 2. It was discovered by Nawaschin.

Question 4.
Differentiate between antheridium and archegonium.

Antheridium Archegonium
1. It is the male sex organ. 1. It is the female sex organ.
2. It is club shaped. 2. It is flask shaped.
3. It produces biflagellete Antherozoids. 3. It produces a single egg.

Question 5.
What are the two stages found in the gametophyte of mosses? Mention the structure from which these two stages develop?
The gametophyte of Mosses consists of two stages namely
a) Juvenile stage, the Protonema and
b) Adult leafy stage, gametophore.

Protonema is developed directly from spore. Gametophore is developed from the protonema as a lateral adventitious bud.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 4 Plant Kingdom

Question 6.
Name the stored food materials found in Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
In Phaeophyceae, the stored food material is Laminarin or Mannitol. The stored food material in Rhodophyceae is floridean starch.

Question 7.
Name the pigments responsible for brown colour of phaeophyceae and red colour of Rhodophyceae.
“Fucoxanthin” pigment is responsible for brown colour of phaeophyceae and “r-phycoerythrin” is responsible for red colour of Rhodophyceae.

Question 8.
Name different methods of vegetative reproduction in Bryophytes. [A.P. Mar. 15]
In Bryophytes vegetative Reproduction takes place by fragmentation or by Gemmae, or by budding in secondary protonema.

Question 9.
Name the integumehted megasporangium found in Gymnosperms. How many femals gametophytes are generally formed inside the megasporangium?
The Integumented Megasporangium found in Gymnosperms is ovule. One multicellular female gametophyte develops inside the megasporangium which bears two or more archegonia.

Question 10.
Name the Gymnosperms which contain mycorrhiza and coralloid roots respectively.
The Gynnosperm which contain Mycorrhiza is pinus, and which contain corralloid roots is cycas.

Question 11.
Mention the ploidy of any four of the following.
a. Protonemal cell of a moss.
b. Primary endosperm nucleus in a dicot.
c. Leaf cell of a moss.
d. Prothallus of a fern,
e. Gemma cell in Marchantia
f. Meristem cell of monocot
g. Ovum of a liverwort and
h. Zygote of a fern.
a) Haploid
b) Triploid
c) Haploid
d) Haploid
e) Haploid
f) Diploid
g) Haploid
h) Diploid

Question 12.
Name the four classes of pteridophyta with one example each.
The four classes of pteridophyta are :
i) Psilopsida Ex : Psilotum
ii) Lycopsida Ex : Lycopodium
iii) Sphenopsida Ex : Equisetum
iv) Pteropsida Ex : Pteris

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 4 Plant Kingdom

Question 13.
What are the first organisms to colonise rocks? Give the generic name of the moss which provides peat?
The first organisms to colonise rocks are Mosses along with Lichens. Generic name is sphagnum.

Question 14.
Mention the fern characters found in Cycas.
Some of the fern characters are :

  1. Circinate vernation of young leaves.
  2. Presence of ramenta.
  3. Multiciliated Male gametes.
  4. Presence of Archegonia.

Question 15.
Why are Bryophytes called the amphibians of the plant Kingdom?
They live in moist soil and they depend on water for sexual reproduction. So they are called amphibians of plant Kingdom.

Question 16.
Name an algae which show
a) Haplo – diplontic and b) Diplontic types of life cycles.
Algae which show Haplo – diplontic life cycle is Ectocarpus. Algae that show Diplontic life cycle is Fucus.

Question 17.
Give examples for unicellular, colonial and filamentous algae.
Example are volvox, spirogyra and chara. These are the members of chlorophyceae.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Differentiate between red algae and brown algae. [A.P. May. 18, Mar. 14]

Red algae Brown algae
1. Red algae belong to the class Rhodophyceae. 1. Brown algae belong to the class Phaeo-phyceae.
2. Majority of them are marine and some are fresh water forms. 2. They live in fresh waters, brackish and salt waters.
3. The thallus of Red algae are multicellular. 3. The thallus range from simple branched filamentous form to profusely branched forms.
4. The major pigments are Chlorophyll a, d and r-phycoerythrin. 4. The major pigments are chlorophyll a, c, carotexnoids and Xanthophylls (Fuco xanthin)
5. Flagella are absent. 5. Flagella are 2, unequal lateral.
6. Cell wall is made up of Cellulose, Pectin and Polysulphate esters. 6. Cell wall is made up of Cellulose and algin.
7. Food materials are stored in the form of floridean starch. 7. Food materials are stored in the form of Mannitol and Laminarin.
8. Asdxual Reporduction is by non-motile spores. 8. Asexual Reproduction is by biflagellate zoospores.
9. Sexual reproduction is by non-motile gametes. 9. Sexual Reproduction is by motile gametes.
10. Red algae.
Ex : Polysiphonria, Porphyra Gracilaria, Gelidium.
10. Brown algae.
Ex : Ectocarpus, Laminaria, Sargassum, Focus.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 4 Plant Kingdom

Question 2.
Differentiate between liverworts and mosses.

Liverworts Mosses
1. Plant body in liverworts is thalloid which is prostrate dorsiventral and closely appressed to the substrate. 1. In Mosses the adult stage gametophore consists of upright, slender axis with spirally arranged leaves which gets attached to substratum by Rhizoids.
2. Antheridia (Male) and Archegonia (Female) are sex organs produced on the same or on different thalli. 2. Male and female sex organs are produced at the apex of the leafy shoots.
3. Paraphyses are absent. 3. Paraphyses are present.
4. Vegetative Reproduction is by fragmentation or by Gemmae. 4. Vegetative Reproduction is by fragmen-tation or by Gemmae or by budding on the secondary protonema.
5. The sporophyte is small or reduced. 5. The sporophyte in mosses is more elaborate.
6. Elaters are present in the capsule which help in spore dispersal. 6. Peristomial teeth are present in capsule which help in spore dispersal.
7. Spores germinate to form free living gameto- phytes. 7. Spores germinate to form creeping, green, branched protonema.
8. Ex : Marchantia. 8. Ex : Funaria.

Question 3.
What is meant by Homosporous and Heterosporous pteridaphytes? Give two examples. [T.S. May. 18 A.P. Mar. 18, 15, 13]
Pteridophytes which produce similar type of spores are called Homosporous pteridophytes.
Ex : Lycopodium, Pteris.

Pteridophytes which produce two types of spores are called Heterosporous Pteriodophytes.
Ex : Selaginella, Saivinia.

Question 4.
What is Heterospory? Briefly comment on its significance. Give two examples. [T.S. Mar, 15]
Heterospory refers to the production of different types of spores.

Significance :

  1. Microspores formed from Microspore mother cells are small with 0.015 – 0.05 mp. Megaspores formed from Megaspore Mother cell are big and are with 1.5 mp.
  2. Microspores develop into Male gametophytes and Megaspores develop into female gametophytes which lead to unisexuality.
  3. The female gametophytes are retained on the parent sporophyte for variable periods.
  4. The development of zygote into young embryos takes place within the female gametophytes.
  5. The female gametophyte is with abundant food materials.
    Ex : Selagenella, Saivinia.

Question 5.
Write a note on economic importance of Algae and Bryophytes.
Importance of Algae :

  1. At least a half of the carbon dioxide fixation on earth is carried out by Algae through photosynthesis and increases the level of oxygen in the environment.
  2. They are paramount importance as primary producers of energy rich compounds which form the basis of the food cycles of aquatic animals.
  3. Many species of Porphyra, Laminaria and sargassum are used as food.
  4. Some marine Brown and red algae produce large amounts of hydro carbons.
    Ex : A/gin and Carrageen.
  5. Iodine is extracted from kelps like Laminaria.
  6. Chlorella and Spirullina are used as food supplements even by space travellers.

Economic importance of Bryophytes :

  1. Some mosses provide food for herbaceous mammals, birds and other animals.
  2. Species of Sphagnum, a moss provide peat used as fuel and because of its capacity to hold water as packing material for trans – shipment of living material.
  3. Mosses along with lichens are the first organisms to Colonise rocks.
  4. They play significant role in plant succession.
  5. Mosses form dense mats on the soil, thus they reduce the impact of falling rain and prevent soil erosion.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 4 Plant Kingdom

Question 6.
How would you distinguish Monocots from Dicots.

Monocots Dicots
1. Monocots contain only one cotyledon in their seeds. 1. Dicots contain two cotyledons in their seeds.
2. Fibrous root system is present. 2. Tap root system is present
3. Parallel venation is seen in leaves. 3. Reticulate venation is seen in leaves.
4. Endosperm is absent. 4. Endosperm is present.
5. During germination, seed produce only one leaf. 5. During germination, the seed produce two leaves.

Question 7.
Give a brief account of Prothallus.
In Pteridophytes, the spores germinate to give rise to Inconspicuous, small but multicellular free living, photosynthetic thalloid gametophytes called Prothalli. They require cool, damp, shady places to grow. Because of this specific requirement and water for fertilization, the spread of living pteridophytes is limited and restricted to narrow geographical regions. The gametophytes bear male and female sex organs, called antheridia and archegonia respectively. The sex organs are multicellular, jacketed and sessile.

Question 8.
Draw labelled diagrams of :
a) Female thallus and Male thallus of a liverwort.
b) Gametophyte and sporophyte of funaria.
AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 4 Plant Kingdom 1

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them.
Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms are the three ‘groups of plants that bear archegonia. The plant body in bryophytes is haploid. It produces gametes hence it is called gametophyte. The sex organs are multicellular, Jacketed and stalked. Antheredium, which is the male sex organ produces biflagellate antherozoids. Archegonium, the female sex organ, which is flask shaped, produces a small egg.

The antherozoids are released into water where they come in contact with archegonium. One antherozoid fuses with the egg to produce the zygote. This is called zooidogamous oogamy. Zygote produce a multicellular body called sporophyte. It is attached to the photosynthetic gametophyte and extracts nourishment from it.

Some cells of the sporophyte, called spore mother cells undergo reduction division to produce Haploid spores. These spores germinate to produce gametophyte. Bryophytes show alternation of generations (because garhetophytic and sporophytic bodies are different) and life cycle is Haplo-diplontic type.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 4 Plant Kingdom

Question 2.
Describe the important characteristics of Gymnosperms.

  1. Gymnosperms are embryophytic, trachaeophytic, archegoniate phanerogams.
  2. They include medium size trees or tall trees and shrubs.
  3. The root system is tap root system. In some genera roots have fungal association in the form of mycorrhiza (Pinus) and in some Cycas roots have coralloid roots which are associated with Nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria (Nostbc and Anabaena)
  4. The stems are unbranched (Cycas) or branched (Pinus Cedrus).
  5. The leaves may be simple or compound. In Cycas, the pinnate leaves persists for a years in Cycas.
  6. Anatomically the stem shows eustele. The vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and open.
  7. Vessels are generally absent in xylem and companion cells are absent in phloem.
  8. Secondary growth occurs in stem and roots.
  9. The Gymnosperms are heterosporous, they produce haploid microspores and megaspores.
  10. The two types of spores are produced in sporangia that are borne on sporophylls which are arranged spirally an aixs to form compact strobili.
  11. The male strobili consists of microsporophylls and Microsporangia which produce Micro-spores.
  12. Microspores or pollen grains develop into Male gametophyte.
  13. The strobili bearing Megasporophylls with ovules are called female strobili.
  14. Micro and Megasporphylls may be borne on the same tree (Pinus) or on different trees (Cycas).
  15. Megaspore develop into female gametophyte. The pollination is direct and anemophilous.
  16. Gymnosperms are divided into three classes namely Cycadopsida, Coniferopsida and Gnetopsida.

Question 3.
Give the sailent features of Pteridophytes.

  1. Pteridophytes are used for medicinal purposes and as soil-binders.
  2. These are the first terrestrial plants to possess vascular tissues.
  3. They are embryophytic, archegoniate vascular cryptogams.
  4. They prefer cool, damp and shady places.
  5. The plant body is a sporophyte which is differentiated into true roots, stem and leaves.
  6. The root system is adventitious.
  7. The stele may be protostele or siphonostele or solenostele or’dictyostele.
  8. The leaves are small (selagenella) or large as in ferns.
  9. The sporophytels bear sporangia that are subtended by leaf like sporophylls.
  10. Most of the pteridophytes are homosporous but selaginella and Salvinia shows Heterosporous.
  11. The spores germinate to give rise to Prothalli.
  12. The gametophytes bear male and female sex organs called antheridia and archegonia.
  13. The sex organs are multicellular, jacketed and sessile.
  14. Fusion of Male gamete with the egg present in the archegonium results in the formation of zygote.
  15. Zygote develops into young embryo which produces a multicellular sporophyte.

Question 4.
Give an account of plant life Cycles and alternation of Generations.
In plant, both haploid and diploid cells can divide by mitosis which leads to the formation of different plant bodies, haploid and diploid. The haploid plant body produces gametes by mitosis and is called gametophyte. It is followed by fertilization, which results in the formation of zygote which also divides by mitosis to form diploid sporophytic plant body. In this, Meiosis occurs, results in the formation of spores. These spores again divide by mitosis to form a Haploid plant body. Thus during life cycle there is a alternation of generations between gamete producing haploid gametophyte and spore producing diploid sporophyte.

Different plants show different life cycles. For Ex :
1) Many Algae such as Vo/vox, Spirogyra and some species of Chlamydomomas shows Haplontic life cycle. In this, zygote represents the sporophytic stage which divides by meiosis results in the formation of Haploid spores. These spores divide mitotically and form the gametophyte.

2) In some species, the diploid sporophyte is the dominant photosynthetic. Independent phase of the paint. The haploid phase is represented by gametes only. So this lifecycle is called diplontic type. In some pteridophytes, the gametophyte is represented by few celled stage so called diplo-haplontic type. Other exmples are polysiphonia.

3) In Bryophytes, both phases are multicellular with dominant gametophytic phases and dependent sporophytic phage. So this life cycle is called haplo-diplontic type. Other examples for this are Ectocarpus, Laminaria.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 4 Plant Kingdom

Question 5.
Both Gymnospoerms and Angiosperms bear seeds then why are they classified separately?

Gymnosperms Angiosperms
1. Herbs are absent. Mainly trees. 1. Most of the Angiosperms are herbs.
2. Reproductive parts are cones. 2. Reproductive parts are flowers.
3. Cones are unisexual. 3. Flowers are uni or Bisexual.
4. Ovules are Naked. So called naked seeded plants. 4. Ovules are hidden within the Ovary. Seeds are present in the fruit.
5. Pollen grains reach the ovules directly. 5. Pollen grains reach the ‘stigma’.
6. Male gametophyte consists of prothallial cells. 6. Prothallial cells are absent.
7. Male gametes are Multiciliated. 7. Cilia are absent on Male gametes.
8. Fertilization occurs only once. 8. Fertilization occurs twice.
9. Archegonia are present. 9. Archegonia are absent.
10. Female gametophyte acts on endosperm formed before fertilization which is Haploid. 10. Endosperm is formed after fertilization, and is Triploid.
11. During Embryogenesis, free nuclear divisions occurs. 11. Free nuclear divisions are absent.
12. Xylem vessels and companion cells are absent. 12. Xylem vessels and Companion Cells are present.
13. Vegetative reproduction is rare. 13. Vegetative reproduction is common.