Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Study Material 12th Lesson Political Parties Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Study Material 12th Lesson Political Parties
Long Answer Questions
Write an essay on the major National Political Parties in India.
India is the largest democratic country in the world. Political parties in India are classified into two types.
- All India Parties (or) National Parties and
- Regional Parties
1. National Parties :
A political party that participates in four or more states in Lok Sabha elections and secures 6% of valid polled votes plus 4 Lok Sabha- seats can be recognized as National Party by the Election Commission of India.
At present there are 6 major National parties in India they are :
- Indian National Congress (INC)
- Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
- Communist Party of India (CPI)
- Communist Party of India Marxist (CPM)
- Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) .
- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
1. Indian National Congress (INC):
Indian National Congress is the oldest All India Political Party in our country. It was founded by A.O. Hume, a British Civil Servant on 28th December 1885. Womesh Chandra Banerjee was its first President. This party has played a prominent role in the Indian National movement agairist the Britishers and ultimately secured Independence. After Independence, the Congress kept on dominating the Indian Political science. It became the ruling party at the union and in majority of the Indian States upto March 1977.
Again it came to power during 1980-89 and 1991-1996. Between 1996 – 2004 it acted as a recognised opposition party at the centre. In 2004, it came to power at the centre as a major partner in United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It was the first congress led coalition at the centre. Again in 2009 general elections the congress led UPA, Secured Majority and formed government at centre with its allies.
2. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP):
Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the All India Parties in India. It was founded in February 1980. It has been playing an active role in Indian Politics. It remained in power at the centre during 1998 – 2004. The party has remained as a major partner in the NDA government at the centre in the 13th Lok Sabha. The party remained as the main opposition party in the 14th and 15m Lok Sabha. Now it is in power at the centre under the leadership Sri Narendra Modi’, the Prime Minister of BJP led NDA government since 2014, May.
3. Communist Party of India (CPI) :
Revolutionary leaders and great intellectuals like M.N. Roy were very much fascinated by the Great October Revolution in Russia. Accordingly, the Communist P«arty of India was established on Dec. 26, 1925. Its main aims were to unify the workers, to fight against the colonial rule, to bring about a revolution through class war etc.
The party’s support was more concentrated in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal, Bihar and Kerala.
4. Communist Party of India Marxist (CPI(M)) :
The split in the Communist Party of India in 1964 at the Vijayawada session led to the birth CPI Marxist party. The extremists headed by Puchallapalli Sundarayya, Nambudripad, Jyoti Basu etc., formed the Marxist party. In fact there is not much difference in the ideology between the two parties. They differ only in the means. Of the CPI has moderate and rightist nature CPI (M) has extremist and leftest in nature. If the CPI is pro-Russia and CPI (M) is pro-China. The CPI(M) has a strong presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal and Tripura.
5. Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) :
Bahujan Samaj Party is a National Party in our country. It was founded by Kanshi Ram in 1984. The Bahujan Samaj Party – a party dominated by Dalits is the outcome of the merger of employees federation and Dalit Shoshit Samaj Samiti. Kanshi Ram was the torch bearer of this party and Mayawati its beacon light. Mayawati has been described as the guiding angel of the BSP and in fact its savior. The Scheduled Castes, Tribes, educationally and socially downtrodden classes, employees and workers of these classes are the members of this party. After the death of its mentor Kanshi Ram, Mayawati has become the savior of the party in all respects. The BSP has considerable hold in the U.P.
6. Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) :
The Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) is a Centre to Centre left political party primarily based in the states of Maharastra, Kerala and Meghalaya. NCP was formed on 25 May 1999, by Sharad Pawar, P.A. Sangma and Tariq Anwar after they were expelled from the Indian National Congress (INC) on 20th May 1999, for disputing the right of Italian – bom Sonia Gandhi to lead the party. Sharad Pawar is its president. It was an ally of congress led UPA government during 2004 to 2014.
Explain the various types of Parties and estimate the role of Regional Parties in India.
There are four types of Political Parties in the modem democratic states. They are:
- Reactionary Parties
- Conservative Parties
- Liberal Parties, and
- Radical Parties
The Reactionary Parties are those which are clinging to the old socio-economic and political institutions. The Conservatives believe in the status quo. The Liberal Parties aim at reforming the existing institutions. The Radical Parties aim at establishing a new order by overthrowing the existing institutions. Parties are also again classified on the basis of ideologies. The political scientists have placed the radical parties on the left, the liberal parties in the Centre and the reactionary and conservative parties on the right. In other words, they are described as the leftist parties’, ‘centrist parties’ and ‘rightist parties’.
After India became independent many political parties came into existence. Among these are some national parties, while some are regional parties D.M.K. in Tamil Nadu, Telugu Desam in A.P., National Conference in Jammu and Kashmir, Kranti Ranga in Karnataka and Assam Gana-Parishad in Assam have come into existence and have flourished as regional parties.
Reasons for the rise of regional parties :
Regional parties have been playing a vital role in the Indian politics. These regional parties have come into existence due to the causes mentioned here under.
Causes for the promotion of regional parties :
1) Regional parties based on regional issues :
India is a vast country with a great diversity. The Governments that came to power after Independence have not attempted to eliminate the economic imbalances and the differences between the different regions. Regional parties have come into existing basing on a problem in a certain region. In Tamil- Nadu at first D.K. and later D.M.K, have come into existence basing on the issues of preservation of Tamil culture, language issue and opposition to the imposition of Hindi.
In Punjab, Akali Dal was set up for the formation of a Punjabi Suba to safeguard the special status of Kashmir, National Conference was founded. Due to excessive intervention of the centre in Andhra Politics and the self-respect of Andhra Telugu Desam party come into existence and captured power in 1983. As regional parties have given prominence to the solution of the local issues, they have been reaping the sympathy of the people. So within a short time regional parties have flourished. ’
2) Failure of the Congress in solving regional issues :
The regional parties have flourished due to the failure of the Congress in solving regional issues. The Congress party has not taken regional disparities into account. It has not also tried to solve them in time and in a faetful way. D.M.K in Tamil Nadu became powerful on account of the language problem and the imposition of Hindi to which Tamilians are opposed. On account of the Centre’s frequent intervention in A.P Politics and disregard in selling up Central Government Industries Telugu Desam became powerful. In all the regions where regional parties have been formed, the failure of the Congress in solving regional issues is clearly seen.
3) Economic disparities between the states :
The Central Government has not implemented schemes to remove the economic disparties between the regions of the country and to ensure economic well being of all the regions. As economic disparties between the different states grew, the protests and agitations gave rise to the birth of the regional parties. With the vast economic resources at it’s disposal the centre did not attempt to remove the economic disparties. Economic inequalities are the main causes behind political agitations or movements. The frustration at the different provincial level gave rise to the rise and development of regional parties.
4) Individuality of regional leaders and their influence :
The individuality and influence of the regional leaders can be said to be one of the factors for the rise of regional parties. May parties have been founded only by leaders who have individuality and influence. These have been able to secure popularity.
Ex : Sri M.G. Ramachandran has founded the A.I.A.D.M.K. and Sri N.T. Rama Rao founded the Telugu Desam party. The strength behind these regional parties is derived from one individual. So, the party workers in a disciplined manner exhibit their allegiance to their leader; By this factor only regional parties have been thriving.
5) Electoral agreements or adjustments :
Where the regional parties are strong the national parties for their existence have been making electoral alliances with the regional parties. After the elections depending on the results these national parties have been joining the ministry or lending support from outside. So.these regional parties have been flourishing.
These factors have been responsible for the growth of regional parties in India.
Write an essay on “One Party Dominance” in India.
Indian National Congress is the oldest All India Political Party in our country. It was founded by A.O. Hume, a British Civil Servant on 28th December 1885. Womesh Chandra Baneijee civil was its first president. This party has played a prominent role in the Indian National movement against the Britishers and ultimately secured independence. After independence, the Congress kept on dominating the Indian Political Science. It became the ruling party at the union and in majority of the Indian States. The Role of the Congress party was so great that India was often described as a single dominant Party System.,
Support Base :
During the freedom struggle, the Indian National Congress enjoyed the support of all sections of society, particularly the middle class and the new intellectual Elite. After independence it enjoyed a remarkable popular support among the masses. The congress has always tired to identify itself with the poor of India. Garibi Hatao has been its popular slogan.
During 1947 – 67 the congress ruled the union and almost all the states of the union. In 1967 it suffered a set back when in several states non-congress parties came to power. Its leaders Jawaharlal Nehru, Lai Bahadur Sastri and Indira Gandhi have acted as the Prime Ministers in succession from 1947 to 1977. In 1977 elections the Congress lost its power because of misrule and authoritarian rule during the emergency from 1975 to 1977. In 1980 and 1984 it came back to power under the leadership of Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. In 1991 elections congress formed government under the prime ministership of P.V. Narasimha Rao, after the assasination of Rajiv Gandhi.
The destruction of the controvercial Babri Masjid during Rao’s rule proved to be a great curse to the party. The economic reforms initiated in this period were not openly acknowledged. In 1996 election the party failed to win. In 14th and 15th Lok Sabha elections Under the leadership of Mrs. Sonia Gandhi the congress led UPA, won the majority and formed government at the centre under the Prime Minister of Dr. Manmohan Singh. In 15th Lok Sabha election the UPA contested with the Slogan “Jai ho”
Short Answer Questions
What is Political Party? Explain its characteristics and functions. [Mar. 16]
Political Parties are the life blood of democracy. Political parties mould public opinion and create an order out of the choos of individual opinion. In general sense, political party is an organized group of citizens having the purpose of controlling the government through shared interest, by replacing some of its members in public office.
Political parties are defined by various political scientists in different ways. Some of them are given below :
“Political party as an organized group of citizens who profess to share the same political views and who acting as a political unit try to control the Government”.
2) Leacock :
“A political party is a more or less organized group of citizens who act together as a political unit”.
Characteristic of Political Parties : The following are the important characteristics of political parties. .
- A party should consist of a group of persons of common interest and shared values.
- A party should have its own ideology and programme.
- It should capture power only by constitutional means through elections.
- It should endeavour to promote the national interest and national welfare.
Functions of Political Parties: The following are the main functions of political parties.
1) They articulate and aggregate social interests of people :
Parties express public expectations and demands of social groups to the political system. Parties put forward different policies and programmes for the welfare of people. These political parties are articulate and aggregate the people’s demands and channelize into political system for policies.
2) Political recruitment :
Political parties perform the recruitment function in the political system. Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want By this recruiting function, they provide leadership to the country.
3) Means of public opinion :
They raise and highlight the people’s problems and issues. Political parties may agitate and launch movements for the solution the problems faced by people. Political parties demand the government for welfare policies their- programmes will reflect the opinion of the people.
4) They promote political Socialization and participation of citizens:
Political parties create a link between citizens and the political system ; they enable political participation of individuals and groups with the prospect of success. They educate the citizens and prepare them for their adult roles are us citizens and voters.
5) Making laws :
When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Irrespective of their personal options. Opposition parties also participate in the discussion and debates and suggest the changes in the policies and programmes of the government.
6) Role of opposition :
Parties that lose in elections play the role Of opposition to the parties in power by criticizing the government for its failures or wrong policies. They can evaluate the performance of the ruling party and inform to the public about the merits and demerits of the policies and acts made by it.
7) Access to government machinery and welfare Schemes :
For an ordinary citizen, it is easy to approach a local party leader than a government officer. That is why they feel close to parties ever when they do not fully trust them. Parties have to be responsive to people’s needs and demands.
8) They contribute legitimacy to the political system:
In establishing the connection between citizens social groups and the political system, the parties contribute in anchoring the political order in the consciousness of the citizens and in social forces.
What do you know about Party System? Give a note on types of Party System.
Party System :
Party System is a modem phenomenon which has less than 200 years of age. Parties and party system emerged in Europe, North America and Japan around the third decade of the 19th century.
The party system refers to complex social and political processes individual leaders, societal associations, political groups and organizations and their interaction and inter-relationships. These interaction patterns are governed by constitutions, statues, rules regulations and institutions.
Rajini Kothari has argued in his book “Politics in India” that the party system evolved from an identifiable political centre. This political centre, curved during the nationalist movement, comprised of the political elite sharing common socio – economic background i.e., educated, urban, upper-caste people belonging mainly to middle and upper classes.
Types of party system:
There are different types of party system which are discussed below. They are classified into a single party system, Bi-party system and Multiparty system.
Single party system :
In a single party system only one political party is in existence. The other political parties are not allowed to function. It is possible that the dissension and grouping may exist with in the same political party viz.., Nazi Party in Germany Fascist Party in Italy, Communist Party in China and in former USSR.
Bi-party System :
Under Bi-party system, two major political parties are in working in a political system, one forms the government and the other functions as opposition, political power in such cases alternate between the two major political parties, viz., the labour and the conservative parties in U.K. or Republican and Democratic parties in U.S.A.
Multi Party System:
In multi party system there are more than two parties operating in a political system. But in practice they are aligned with either the ruling party or the opposition party. This type of party system is in existence in India, France, Sweden and Norway etc.
Write briefly the characteristics of Indian party system.
Political parties are essential for the success of Democracy. They acts as agencies of public opinion and link between the government and the people. Modem democracy is unthinkable in the absence of political parties.
Characteristics (or) Features of India party system: The Indian party system has the following characteristics (or) features.
1. Multi – Party System:
The continental size of the country, the diversified character of Indian Society, the adoption of universal adult franchise, the peculiar type of political process and other factors have given rise to a large number of political parties. In fact, India has the largest number of political parties in the world. At present there are 6 National parties, 64 State Parties and 1737 registered – unrecognized parties in the country. Further, India has all categories of parties – leftist parties, centrist parties, rightist parties, communal parties, non-communal parties and so on. Consequently, the hung Parliament, hung Assemblies and coalition governments have become a common phenomena in Indian. Political System.
2. One Party Dominance System :
In spite of the multi-party system, the political scence in India was dominated for a long period by the Congress party. Hence, Rajani Kothari, an eminent political scientist, preferred to call the Indian Party System as ‘one party dominance system’ or the ‘Congress System’.
3. Lack of Clear Ideology :
Except the BJP, CPI and CPM, all other parties do not have a clear-out ideology. They are ideologically close to the each, other. They have close resemblance in their policies and programmes. Almost every party advocates democracy, secularism, socialism and Gandhism. More than this, every party has only one consideration i.e., power capture.
4. Personality Cult:
Quite often the parties are organized around an eminent leader who becomes more important than the party and its ideology. Parties are known by their leaders rather than by their manifesto. It is a fact that the popularity of the Congress was mainly due to the leadership erf Nehru, Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. Similarly, the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu and TDP in Andhra Pradesh got identified with M.G. Ramachandran and N.T. Rama Rao respectively. In Tamil Nadu, after M.G. Ramachandran, Jayalalitha became the icon of the party for this culture. Hence, it is said that “there are political personalities rather than political parties in India”.
5. Traditional Factors :
A large number of parties in India are formed on the basis of religion, caste, language, culture, race and so on. For example Shiv Sena, Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Akali Dal, Bahujan Samajwadi Party, Gorkha League etc., work for the promotion of communal and sectional interests and thereby undermine the general public interest.
6. Emergence of Regional Parties :
Another significant feature of the Indian Party System is the emergence of a large number of regional parties and their growing role. They have become the ruling parties in various states like BJD in Orissa, DMK and AIADMK in Tamil Nadu, Akali Dal in Punjab, AGP in Assom, National Conference in J & K, JD(U) in Bihar and so on.
These regional parties have come to play a significant role in the national politics due to coalition governments at the Centre. In 1984 elections, the TDP emerged as the largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha and played a decisive role in national politics. In one context, i.e., during the NDA Government when Vajpayee was the Prime Minister at the Centre, Nara Chandra Babu Naidu played a ‘King Maker’ role at the centre.
7. Factions and Defections:
Factionalism, defections, splits, mergers, fragmentation, polarization and so etc., have been important aspects of the functioning of political parties Dais, two Communist parties, two Congresses and so on.
8. Lack of Effective opposition :
In the last 63 years, an effective strong, organized and a viable national opposition could never emerge except in flashes. The opposition parties have no unity and very offen adopt mutually conflicting positions with respect to the ruling party.
Write a note on Congress Party In India.
Indian National Congress is the oldest All India Political Party in our country. It was founded by A.O. Hume, a British Civil Servant on 28th December 1885. Womesh Chandra Baneijee was its first president. This party has played a prominent role in the Indian National movement against the Britishers and ultimately secured Independence. After Independence, the congress kept on dominating the Indian political scence. It became the ruling party at the union and in majority of the Indian states up to March 1977.
- Jawaharlal Nehru was the Prime Minister from 1946 to 1964.
- Lai Bahadur Shastri was the Prime Minister from 1964 to 1966.
- Smt. Indira Gandhi was the prime minister from 1966 to 1977.
- Again it came to power during 1980 to 1989, again Smt. Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister from 1980 to 1984 October, 31st, the day on which she was assassinated.
- Rajeev Gandhi was the Prime Minister from 1984 to 1989.
- It became the Ruling party during 1991 to 1996 under the stewardship of Sri. P. V Narasimha Rao.
- Between 1996 to 2004 it acted as a recognized opposition party at the centre.
- In 2004 it came to power at the centre as a major partner in united progressive Alliance (UPA).
- Again in 2009 general elections the Congress led UPA secured majority and formed government at centre with its allies.
- Dr. Manmohan Singh was the Prime Minister from 2004 to 2014.
The Indian National Congress, during the pre-independence era has worked with a single point programme, called Swaraj. After achieving independence it was committed to implementation of the policies like secularism, socialism, international peace, equality and Justice. It has the following policies :
- The party aims to eradicate poverty, unemployment, economic inequalities, discrimination, exploitation etc.
- It strives to achieve full employment, optimum production, promotion of cottage and small scale industries, provatization, globalization and liberalization programmes in the industrial sector.
- It stafids for world peace and security and has belief in the policy of noninterference, non-alignment, friendly relations with all countries and to end racial apartheid in international sphere.
- It dedicates itself to the implementation of land reforms rescuing farmers in times of natural calamities, provision of credit at lower rates of interest, marketing and warehousing facilities in agricultural sector.
- It abides by the values of democracy and decentralisation of authority in political field.
Party organization :
Its constitutions was first formulated at Nagpur session (1920). Now, let us know something about its organization.
1. All India Congress Committee (AICC) :
It consists of about 425 members. It meets annually. It decides all the policies of the party. It occupies the highest place in the organization.
2. Congress working committee (CWC) :
It consists of 21 members including the president. It is called the High command of the party. It includes the Prime Minister and all senior leaders of the party. It takes all important decisions and implements them with the approval of AICC.
3. Parliamentary Board :
It consists of president and seven senior members. It takes decisions regarding the appointment and removal of Chief Ministers, selection of candidates.
4. Central Election Committee (CEC) :
It selects candidates to contest elections at the state and national level.
5. Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC) :
Every state has its own RC.C. It selects candidates to contest Assembly elections. At the lower level, it has District, Mandal and village committees. In reality, it acts as a centralized organisation.
Explain briefly about Bharatiya Janata Party. [Mar. 18]
Bharatiya Janatha Party is one of the All India Parties in India. It was established on April 6, 1980. Earlier it was known as Bharatiya Jan Sangh founded by shyam Prasad Mukherjee on October 21, 1951. DeenadayalTJpadhyaya, Atal Bihari Vaj Payee, Lai Krishna Advani, Murali Manohar Joshi, Jana Krishna Murthy, Kushbhav Thakre and Venkaiah Naidu acted at it’s presidents.
Although initially unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi and Babri Majid issue. Following victories in several state elections and better performances in national elections, the BJP became the largest party in the Parliament in 1996; however, it lacked a majority in the lower house of Parliament, and its government lasted only 13 days. After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) formed a government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee for a year.
Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vijpayee, lasted for a full term in office ; this was the first non-Congress government to do so. In the 2004 general election, the BJP led NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, and for the next ten years the BJP was the principal Opposition party. Long time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi, a principal campaigner and charismatic leader of the party, led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general elections. Since that election, Narendra Modi leads the NDA government as Prime Minister with the alliance of 13 states owned parties.
Sri Amith Shah is the present President of the party.
The party had spread its influence in Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jarkhand, Rajsthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi etc.
Bharatiya Janatha Party favours a strong unitary state in place of the present quasi-federation. It has the following policies.
- The party is committed to adopt the principles of nationalism, democracy, value based politics, national integration, positive secularism and Gaiidhian socialism.
- It strives to implement five concepts, namely Suraksha, Sucharita, Swadeshi, Somrastha and Suvajya.
- It aims at the construction of Ram temple at Ayodhya, abrogation of Article 3 to and implementation of Uniform Civil code.
- It also aims at adopting electoral reforms.
- It believes in the implementation of Swadeshi and Swabhiman policies.
- It also aims at the adoption of a practical non-aligned policy in foreign affairs. It favours settlement of all disputes with the neighbouring states through dialogue and discussion. It strongly believes in the utilization of nuclear energy and arms for achieving peace and prosperity. It demands more democratization of the United Nations Organisation by expanding the membership of the security council.
- It favours the continuation of the economic reforms initiated by the earlier governments through the policies of liberalization, privatization and globalization.
- It vehemently opposes dynastic rule, assigning top executive offices and strongly supports decentralization of power and empowerment of women.
Estimate the significance of Regional Parties in India. [Mar. 17]
In India’s federal democratic polity, regional and local parties would continue to have relevance and appeal, especially for certain dominant social and economic interests. The growing presence of regional parties is, undoubtedly, the most outstanding aspect of political I development in India over the past few years.
Till 1967, there was only one party ruling the nation that was ‘Congress Party’, but after 1967 a lot of other political parties came to the forefront along with power and started, to play an imperative and persuasive role in government. With the regional parties coming to the forefront the development of the state’s responsibility has gone to the regional parties as opposed to the Central Government taking care in the initial stages. Regional parties are playing a major role in influencing decisions and thought process in the government planning process and decisions.
After 1996, several regional parties have been emerging as key players in national politics in India. As partners of the NDA, 23 regional parties shared power at the Centre during 1999 and 2004. Some of the regional parties are ruling the states – AIADMK, TDP, JDU, BJD, UDF, NCP, SAD etc. All this reflects the continued and continuously growing importance of regional parties in the Indian politics.
During 1999 to 2004 the BJP, and several regional parties shared power at the Centre as constituents of the BJP led National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Later, the Congress led UPA was in power and in it along with Congress, several regional and local parties shared the power. The present BJP led NDA government is also a coalition government supported by several regional and local parties including Telugu Desam Party.
Write a note on Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh.
Telugu Desam party is a prominent regional party in Andhra Pradesh. It was founded on March 29,1982 by N.T. Rama Rao, a popular Cine Star. It has achieved landslide victory in the A.R state Legislative Assembly elections held in December 1982. N.T.Rama Rao acted as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh thrice – 1983, 1984 and 1994. There was a first split in the party in August 1984. N. Bhaskara Rao, a cabinet Minister quit the party and started a new party called Telugu Desam party (Democratic) and formed the ministry with the support of congress – I.
Consequently, Telugu Desam Party and some other parties launched agitation under the name of ‘Restoration of Democracy’. N.T. Rama Rao was reinstated as the Chief Minister by the then Governor, S.D. Sharma on the intervention of president Zail Singh. The party has lost its power in 1989. Assembly elections and has served as the main opposition in the state Legislative Assembly. It came to power again by winning majority seats in 1994 and 1999 elections. The party has undergone yet another split in August 1995 under the leadership of N. Chandra Babu Naidu and got recognition by the Election commission as the real one.
The party has joined as a partner in the United Front Ministry (1996-98) at the centre. It has extended its support from outside to the Union government led by National Democratic Alliance ministry (1999-2004). The party has continued in power in Andhra Pradesh between 1994 and April 2004. In the Andhra Pradesh general elections, 2004 and 2009 the Congress Party captured the power. The Telugu Desam Party gained a few more Assembly seats in 2009 elections than the 2004 election. In 14th Assembly General Elections held in 2014, the Telugu Desam Party under the leadership of Nara Chandra Babu Naidu got 102 seats out of 174 Seats and formed the government.
Sri N. Chandrababu Naidu became the first Chief Minister of bifurcated Andhra Pradesh in 2014.
Following are the main policies of Telugu Desam Party.
- Provision of essential commodities at subsidised prices to the people living below poverty line (BPL).
- Construction of houses for the poor.
- Empowerment of women.
- Adoption of e-governance.
- Provision of education to every child between the age group of 6 -15.
- Promotion of welfare of the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections.
- Administration at the doorsteps of the common man.
- Provision of better Civil amenities to the poor.
- Adopting secular policy.
- Support to economic reforms such as liberalization, privatization and globalization.
Estimate the conditions helped for the emergence of Telangana Rastriya Samithi Party.
Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) is a regional party which was established in the year 2001 in the integrated state of Andhra Pradesh by Sr. K. Chandra Sekhar Rao.
Conditions helped for the emergence of TRS :
i) Telangana state hood struggle is one of the longest people’s movement in the country. The six decade struggle, which began in early 1950s has reached its goal in February, 2014.
ii) The first statehood movement of 1950s led to the State Reorganization Commission recommending the Telangana state (then called Hyderabad State) in 1955 itself. Due to the political conditions that prevailed in Telangana then it had merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
iii) State in November, 1956. In May 1971, Telangana Praja Samithi headed by Marri Chenna Reddy won 10 of the Parliament seats in Telangana region. But, very soon, Chenna Reddy merged his party with Congress Party.
iv) While the statehood aspirations were alive in people it took sometimes before they found the right platform to intensify the agitation. In mid 1990s, several peoples organizations started organizing meeting on the statehood issue.
v) Sri Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (KCR), Who was the Deputy Speker of A.P State Assembly, had started background work on Telangana issue in early 2000. On 17th May, 2001, K.Chandra Sekhara.Rao announced the launch of Telangana Rashtra Samithi party. Prof. Jayashankar, ‘the ideologue of statehood movement extended his support to K.Chandra Sekhar Rao.
From then on wards it has been demanding separate state hood for Telangana Region. It contested in 2004 elections being an ally of congress party both for Lok Sabha as well as state legislative Assembly. In that elections T.R.S has won 5 Lok Sabha seats and 26 Assembly seats. It joined the Congress governments both at the centre and the state. Later, owing to certain political differences it came out from the government both at the centre and the state. In 2009 General elections. It contested to both Lok Sabha and Assembly being an ally of Grand Alliance with TDP CPI and CPM. It got 2 Lok Sabha seats and 10 Assembly seats.
On Nov 29th, 2009 K. Chandra Sekhara Rao had announced an indefinite hunger strike demanding statehood to Telangana, The movement spread like wildfire with students, employees, peoples’ organizations plunging into it. In the next 10 days, the whole of Telangana region came to a standstill. As K: Chandra Sekhara Rao’s health was deteriorating very fast on December 9th 2009, the UPA government announced that the process of statehood for Telangana would be initiated.
But within two weeks, the UPA backtrack on this issue. KChandra Sekhara Rao then brought all political forces in Telangana region together to form the Telangana JAC an umbrella body of several organizations and parties under the chairmanship of Prof. Kodandaram. TRS cadre and leaders actively participated in several agitations and protests launched by Telangana’ Joint Action Committee (TJAC).
After four years of peaceful and powerful protests, the UPA government started the statehood process in July 2013 and concluded by passing the statehood bill in both Houses of Parliament in February 2014. After the separate statehood of Telangana, in 2014 general elections of the state, TRS party won the majority of seats and formed the government headed by K. Chandra Sekhar Rao as its first Chief Minister.
Very Short Answer Questions
Functions of a Political Party.
Functions of a Political Party:
The following are the main functions of Political Parties :
- They articulate and aggregate social interests of people
- Political recruitment
- Means of public opinion
- They promote political socialization and participation of – citizens
- Making laws
- Role of opposition
- Access to government machinery and welfare schemes
- They contribute legitimacy to the political system.
Types of Party System. [Mar. 17]
There are different types of party system which are discussed below. They are classified into a single party system, Bi-Party system and Multi-Party System.
1. Single party system :
Single party system only one political party is an existence.
Ex: Nazi party in Germany, Fascist party in Italy, Communist party in China and in former USSR.
2) Bi-Party System:
Under Bi-party system, two major political parties are in working in a political system; one forms the government and the other functions as opposition.
Ex : Viz, the labour and the conservative parties in UK or republican and democratic parties in U.S.A.
3) Multi party System:
In Multi-party system there are more than two parties operating in a political system.
Ex : This type of party system is in existence in India, Sweden, Norway, France etc.
National Parties. [Mar. 18]
A political party which participates in four or more states in Lok Sabha elections and secures 6% of valid polled votes plus 4 Lok Sabha seats can be recognised as National Party by the election commission of India. At present there are 6 National Parties in India. Indian National Congress, BJP, CPI, CPM, BSP, NCP
Regional Parties. [Mar. 16]
A political party which participates in state Assembly elections and secures 6% of valid polled votes and 2 Assembly seats can be recognised as a regional party.
Ex : TDP in Andhra Pradesh, DMK and AIADMK in Tamil Nadu, AGP in Assom, National conference in J & K, Akalidal in Punjab, BJD in Odissa etc.
DMK. (Draviuda Munnetra Khajagam)
The term ‘Dravida Munnetra Kazhagm’ means Tamilian Development Party’. It was the product of South Indian Association (1916) and Justice Party (1917). E.V Ramaswamy Naicker was its founder. This party has opposed Vehemently.
a) The dominance of upper castes.
c) Puranas and
d) All religious ceremonies conducted by the priests.
When Ramaswamy Naicker refused to honour the national flag and the India constitution, C.N. Annadurai opposed his decision and seeded from the parent institution Dravida Kazhagm (DK) and formed the present Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) on September 17, 1949.
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Khazagam is a Prominent Regional Party in Tamil Nadu and Pondichery. It was established by Tamil Cine Star M.G. Ramachandran in October, 1972. M.G.R becameThe Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu in 1977 and continued in that office till his death in 1987. After his death Film Star Miss Jayalalitha became its general Secretary. She led the government in Tamil Nadu .during 1991 – 96 and again in 2001 and 2002. In 2011 state Assembly elections the party came to power. Jayalalitha became the Chief Minister for the third term on 16th May, 2011.
One Party Dominance.
In the post independence politics of the country. The role of the Congress party was so great that India was often described as a single dominant party system. The congress was the party of consensus and its strategy was all inclusive. It was often described as a miniature Indian Society which reflected all the essentials in the nation. From First General Elections of 1952 to the present 16th Loksabha general elections of 2014. The Congress party was in power at the centre for 52 years out of 62 years. It shows that the Congress party dominating the political scence of our country.
Multi Party System. [Mar. 16]
In Multi party system there are more than two parties operating in a political system.
Ex : This type of party system is in existence in India, France, Sweeden etc.
Bahujana Samaj Party. (BSP) [Mar. 18]
It is a dominant party in India. It was established by Kanshi Ram in 1985 a retired civil servant. It’s main motto was the preservation and promotion of the interests of down trodden sections in the society. It vehemently opposes the preaching of many and practices of upper castes in society. That is why it always opposed in B.J.P. It’s strength in the Thirteen Lok Sabha, stood at 14. This party came to power in U.R Thrice under the leadership of Mayavathi. Mayavathi is the present President of this party.
Nationalist Congress Party. (NCP)
The Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) is a centre to centre left political party primarily based in the states of Maharastra, Kerala and Meghalaya. NCP was formed on 25 May 1999, by sharad pawar. P. A. Sangma and Tariq Anwar after they were expelled from the Indian National Congress (INC) on 20th May 1999, for disputing the right of Italian – bom Sonia Gandhi to lead Party. Sharad pawar is its president. It was an ally of Congress led UPA government during 2004 to 2014.