# AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 2nd Lesson Population and Human Resources Development Textbook Questions and Answers.

## AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 2nd Lesson Population and Human Resources Development

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Explain the theory of Demographic Transition.
The theory demographic transition postulates a three stages sequence of birth and death rates as typically associated with economic development.
1. First Stage : According to this theory, death rates are high in the first stage of an agrarian economy on account of poor diets, primitive sanitation and absence of effective medical aid. Birth rates sire also high in this stage as a consequence of widespread prevalence of illiteracy, absence of knowledge about family planning techniques, early age of marriage, social beliefs and customs about the size of the family etc. In this stage, the actual growth rate of population is not high birth rate is balanced by high death rate.

It is a stage of high growth potential but of low actual growth. This stage prevailed in India before 1921.

2. Second Stage : Rise in income levels enables the people to improve their diet. Economic development also brings about an all-around improvement including the improvement in transport which makes the supply of food regular. This stage is characterized by rapid growth of population because the substantial reduction in the death rate as there is no corresponding decline in the birth rate. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people- improve education expands, medical and health facilities increase and government makes special efforts to check small pox,.malaria, cholera and plague etc. These developments generally bring down the mortality rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the society towards the size of family does not change radically and birth rate remains high.

In this situation, population increases at an alarming rate. Economists call it population explosion. This stage has been prevailing in India since 1921.

3. Third Stage : A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompained by urbanisation grows fast and education becomes wide spread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall. Life in a city is not the same as in village. Industrialisation results overcrowding in cities and the housing problems compel people to revise their attitudes towards size of family. When the process of economic development gets accelerated, women seek all kinds of employment in order to supplement family earnings for working women, up bring of children is not an easy task consequently.

The birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low.

Question 2.
What are the causes of high birth rate and low death rate in India ?
Population increases because of high birth rate, low death rate and immigration. The birth rate has not declined significantly in India during the last five decades because of a number of economic and social factors.
Causes of the high birth rate :
I. Economic factors :
a) Predominance of Agriculture : India is a predominantly agriculture economy. In an agrarian economy, children are considered assets and’ not burdens as they help in agricultural fields and also other sectors.

b) Slow urbanization process and Predominance of villages : The process of urbanization has been slow in this country and it has failed to generate social forces, which usually bring down the birth rate. The social system and family structure of rural life seem to survive transplantation to the town or city quite remarkably. According to sociological studies.

c) High incidence of Poverty : There is high incidence of poverty in India. Poor people tend to have large families as they consider every child as earning hand. In a poor country like India children are considered as an asset of generating income.

II. Social factors:
a) Compulsory Marriage : Marriage is both a religious and social necessity in India. Presently in India by the age of 50 only 5 out of 1000 Indian women remains unmarried. More marriages means more population.

b) Early Marriage : Not only marriages are almost compulsory, they take place at quite young age in India, which provides more time for women to give birth to children.

c) Religious beliefs and Superstitions : Most Indians due to their religious and superstitions desire to have more children having no regard to their economic conditions. Every child is considered as “Gift of God”.

d) Joint family system: Joint family system in India also encourages people to have large families.

e) Illiteracy: Lack of education among people especially among women causes people to have irrational attitudes and hence big families.

Causes of the low death rate :
a) Control over famines : Famines, which were widespread before independence have not occurred on a large scale since independence.

b) Control over epidermics : Cholera and smallpox often resulted in epidemics before independence. Now smallpox is completely eradicated and cholera is very much under control. Similarly there has been decline in the incidence of malaria and tuberculosis. These have resulted in reducing the death rate.

c) Other factors : Other factors which have reduced death rate are :

• spread of literacy and education.
• expanded medical facilities and health care awareness.
• improved supply of safe drinking water.
• improvement in the nutritional level.
• improvement in sanitation.
• agricultural development in terms of HYVR

Question 3.
What are the measures to control population explosion ?
Population explosion is one of the obstacles for the development of the economy. Therefore it is not something to be welcomed and praised. Hence an attempt must be made to control population explosion.
Measures:

1. Economic measures
2. Social measured
3. Family planning programmes

1. Economic Measures : The size of population in India is large and it is neither desirable nor possible to reduce it. Under these circumstances, vigorous efforts are to be taken on the economic front. As a matter of fact, only economic measures can ensure a permanent solution to the problem. The following measures are suggested by the economists, to reduce the intensity of population explosion.
i) Expansion of industrial sector : The family size of the people employed in the industrial sector is smaller than that of the people who are employed in the agricultural sector. In the country side any number of people can work on the family farm, through some of them will hardly make any contribution to the output. Most of the operational holdings in India are not economic and can thus provide only subsistence living. Most of the peasants think that the benefits from an additional child is greater than the cost of its upbringing. Industrial workers are aware of the difficulties in getting employment and interested in restricting the size of the family. Moreover, higher productivity in the industrial sector makes industrial worker’s conscious of their standard of living. They realise that in order to raise their standard-of living they must restrict the size of their family.

ii) Creation of employment opportunities in urban areas : Industrialisation in the country, there can be many other factors which contribute to the growth of urban centres. In order to check and reduce the people to migrate from the country side to cities, the Government has to create job opportunities in these places. If this programme is carried out in an effective manner and the migration of rural population to urban areas stops in a big way, it may prove to be a powerful check on the growth of population.

iii) Equitable distribution of income and removal of poverty : Poor people have virtually no interest in limiting the size of family. They have little stakes in their lives and are thus unconcerned about their families. While living in poor conditions, they often lose human qualities and at times get alienated even from themselves. Once the poor people get basic needs of life, they will have no economic compulsion to have more children and their attitude towards the size of family will undergo a change. In the change of situation not only will they become conscious of the number of children they should have, but will also undertake every possible effort to make the life of their children as comfortable as they can.

2. Social Measures : Population explosion is as much as a social problem as much it is a economic problem many of its causes are deep-rooted in the social life of the country. Literacy, superstitions and orthodoxy contribute to population explosion in the country. In order to bring down the birth rate, which is still very high, all the social evils must be removed.
(i) Education: Contribution of education in bringing down the birth rate is significant. Education often changes the attitude of person towards family, marriage and number of children he should have. Most educated people delay their marriage and prefer to have small family. Education, by making a frontal attack on orthodoxy and superstitions, induces people to family planning. When education is wide spread both boys and girls are sent to schools and colleges this automatically delays marriages and thus automatically reduces reproductive span of women.

(ii) Improving the status of women: Although the constitution of India has guranteed equality between men and women, there is discrimination in social life and position and status of women is inferior to that of men both socially and economically. This is perphaps the most important reason education is less among women and its absence, they are quite indifferent to family planning, however the discrimination between the men and women in the society leads to growth in family size. In backward society women are not generally allowed to exercise their discretion in respect of number of children they should have.

(iii) Raising the minimum age of marriage : Since fertility rate depends to a great extent on the age of women at the time of marriage. So it is necessary that every possible social, legal and educative measures in undertaken to raise it. In 1978, the child marriage restraint act was amended to raise the marriage to 21 years for men and 18 years for women, National population policy was amended to raise 21 years for men and 25 years for women with a view to restrict the rate of growth of population.

3. The Family planning programme: Importance of the family planning programme as a device to control population explosion is universally recognized.
(i) Public information programme: Under public information programme, couples in the reproductive age are explained the usefulness of family planning. Hence the Government has decided all media of publicity, including cinema, video, T.V to publicize the importance of family planning.

(ii) Incentives and Disincentives: The Government has introduced various schemes under which incentives are being given to those who accept family planning. The system of cash prizes has given some inducement to the people to go in for sterilization.

(iii) Family planning centres: Establishment of family planning centres is an integral part of any family planning programme. These centres provide various clinical facilities needed for family planning.

Question 4.
Bring out the main elements of population policy, 2000.
National population policy : The national population policy, 2000 has outlined immediate, medium term and long-term objectives. The immediate objective is to meet needs of contraception, health infrastructure, personal health and to provide integrated service for basic reproductive and child health care. The medium term objective is to lower down the total fertility rates to the replacement level by 2010. The long term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045. In this broad frame work, the national population policy, 2000 aims at the following:

1. Reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 1 lakh live births.
2. Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per one thousand live births.
3. Achieve immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
4. To achieve 100 percent deliveries in hospitals and dispensaries.
5. Prevention and control of communicable diseases.
6. Achieve universal access to information and counseling and services for fertility regularization and contraception with a wide basket of choice.
7. Facilities for safe abortions to be increased.s
8. Promote delayed marriage for girls, not .earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.
9. Promote the small family norm to achieve replacement levels of total fertility rates.

In pursuance of the National Population Policy 2000, a National Commission of Population has been set up. The commission will review the implementation of the National Population Policy in due time.

Question 5.
Explain the occupational distribution of population in India.
The occupational structure of a country refers to the distribution or division of its population according to the different occupation. We can divided various occupations into three catagories.
1. Primary occupations: Primary occupation also called agriculture sector. Agriculture and allied activities it includes forestry, fishing, animal husbandary, poultry farming etc. Because their products are essential for human existence. They are carried with the help of the nature. In the developing countries a large portion of the population is engaged in these activities.

2. Secondary occupations : Secondary occupation also called industrial sector. It includes mining and quarrying, electricity, gas and water etc. This sector is invariably small in the third world countries and absorbs only a small section of the labor force.

3. Tertiary occupations : Tertiary occupation is also called service sector or third sector. It includes trade and commerce, transport, storage and communications, banking, insurance, real estate, education and health. Tertiary activities help primary and secondary activities in the country.

There is a close relationship between the development of economy and changes in occupational distribution of population.

According to Hans Singer Economic development can be achieved by transforming a 85% agricultural dependent country into a 15% agriculturally dependent country.

Trends in occupational structure during 1951 – 2011 : 2011 census reveals that 48.9% of the labour force was employed in the primary sector. It indicates in predominance of agriculture in the economy. Secondary sector in India still remains small inspite of all the attention that heavy industries got under the various plans. In 2011 secondary sector accounted 24.3% of the labour as against 10.7% of labour force employed in the manufacturing sector during planning period. The tertiary sector in India accounts for a little more than one fifth of the labour force.

Question 6.
Define Human Resource Development. How do you improve it ?
Many statistical investigations carried out in the western countries have shown that out put increased at a much higher rate than can be explained by an increase in physical inputs like labour and physical capital. This has been consistently improving due to improvement education skills, availability of health services etc. Therefore, along with physical capital formation, human development has also been playing a vital role in economic development.

The term human resource development refers to the “Process of acquiring” an increasing the number of persons who have the skills, education and experience which are critical for economic and political development of a country. Human resource development is thus associated with investment in man and his development as a creative and productive resource. According to Schultz, there are five ways developing human resources.

1. Health facilities and services, broadly conceived to include all expenditure that effect the life expectancy, strength and stamina and vigor and vitality of the people.
2. And the job training, including old type apprenticeship organised by firms.
3. Formally organised education at the elementary, secondary and higher levels.
4. Study programmes for adults that are not organised by firms, including extension programmes notably in agriculture.
5. Migration of individuals and families to adjust to changing job opportunities.

Importance of Human resource development: Human resource development plays an important role in economic development. Infact, effective use of physical capital itself is dependent on human resources. This is due to the reason that if there is under investment in human resources the rate at which additional physical capital can be productively utilised will be limited since technical, professional and administrative people required making effective use of material resources. Modem economists in recent years have pointed out that many third world countries have remained underdeveloped on account of under¬development of human resources. Therefore, large scale investment in human resources are needed if physical capital available in these countries is to be exploited more fully and in a more efficient way.

Question 7.
Explain the role of education in economic development.
The expenditure on education in India is not considered an investment. Most of the people and particularly the decision makers in government think that education is just a social service and is meant only to improve the quality of mans life. The importance of education in production is rarely recognized.

Role of Education in Economic development:
1. Education and Economic growth : According to Todaro and Smith, education contributes to economic growth in the developed and developing countries in the following way.

1. It helps in creating a more productive labour force and endowing it with increased knowledge and skills.
2. It helps in providing wide spread employment and income earning opportunities when more schools, colleges and universities come in to existence.
3. It helps in providing basic skills and encourages modem attitudes in the diverse segments of the population.

2. Education and Reduction in Income Inequalities : Though the linkages between education and economic growth are very much in evidence in both, developed and developing countries, those between education and reduction in income inequalities and poverty are difficult to establish.

Despite universal education and educational reforms carried out by the Governments, it is rich and middle income groups that have benefited most. This is due to the reason that the institutional and social structure within which the educational system has to function is unegalitarian and perpetuates inequalities. The childhood of the poor children is characterized by poor nutrition and illiterate home environment which has negative mental effect. Even if they are able to complete their education, they find it difficult to procure jobs which are covered by children belonging to the relatively rich classes on account of the better social contacts and influences.

3. Education and Rural Development: Education can contribute significantly to rural development in variety of ways. By widening the horizons of knowledge of the rural people, it can enable them to overcome ignorance and superstitions. Adoption of new agricultural techniques and new methods of production is rendered easier if the farmers are educated. Education can be oriented as to import skills such as health and nutrition, and improvement, family planning and child care etc. In labor surplus economies like India, education can help rural people in acquiring skills to set up cottage industries on their own so that, the disguised unemployed people can be faithfully employed in the villagers themselves.

4. Education and Family planning : Education helps in modernizing and revolutionizing the way of thinking of the people. It enlightens them of the need to improve their standards of living and for purpose to restrict the size of their families. Therefore, education serves as the best method of their families also as more and more women become literate and seek employment, the fertility rates show a tendency to decline because up bring of children is a comparatively a difficult task for working women.

5. Other benefits of Education :

1. The current spillover income gains to persons other than those who have received extra education.
2. The spillover income gains to subsequent generations from a better educated present generation.
3. The supply of convenient mechanism for discovering and cultivating potential talents.
4. The meeting of the skilled man power requirements of growing economy.
5. The provisiory of an environment that stimulates research in science and technology.
6. The tendency encourages lawful behaviour and promotes voluntary responsibility for welfare activities.
7. The tendency to foster political stability by developing an informed electorate and competent political leadership.
8. The supply of certain measures of “Social control” by the transmission of common cultural heritage. .
9. The enhancement of the enjoyment of leisure by widening the intellectual horizons of both the educated and the uneducated.

Question 8.
Explain the importance of health in economic development.
Efficiency of workers depends on their health. Workers whose health is not good and who fall sick quite often cannot do their job efficiently and thus there efficiency is bound to remain low and improvement in the health of the workers automatically raises the national output. World development 1993 stated “improved health contributes economic growth in favor of ways.

1. It reduces production losses caused by worker illness.
2. It permits the use of natural resources that had been totally or nearly inaccessible because of diseases.
3. It increase the enrolment of the children in schools and makes them better to learn and it frees for alternative uses of resources that would otherwise have to be spent on treating illness.
4. The economic gains are relatively greater for poor people who are typically most handicapped by ill health and who stands to gain the most from the development of under utilised natural resources.
1. Balanced and nutritional food
2. Medical care

Health goals set by 12th plan 2016 -17:

1. Reducing Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to 75 per 1,00,000 live births.
2. Reducing Infant Mortality Rato (IMR) to 19 per 1,000 live births.
3. Reducing Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to 2.1.
4. Providing safe drinking water to all. ‘
5. Prevention and reduction of under weight children in under 3 years is expected to be 29 percent by 2015 and 27 percent by 2017.
6. Reducing anemia among women and girls by 28 percent.
7. Raising sex ratio of age 0 – 6 years from 914 to 935.

Question 9.
What are the different indexes to measure Human Development ?
Human Development Index: In recent years the search for an alternative to GNP as a measure of economic development has led to computation of the Human Development Index (HDI). The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) introduced the HDI in its first Human Development Report prepared under the able stewardship of Mohbub UI Haq and published in 1990.

The measure has been enlarged and refined over the years and many related indices of human development like Gender Related Development Index (GDI), Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) and Human Poverty Index (HPI), Gender Inequality Index (GII), Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) have been developed in subsequent human development reports published annually by UNDP.

1. A longevity of life is measured in terms of life expectancy at birth.
2. Knowledge is measured interms of education.
3. A standard of living is measured in terms of GDP percapita (PPPUS\$).

Human Development Index measures the average achievement in three basic dimensions of Human Development.

Before calculating HDI, an idex for each of three dimensions is calculated. For this purpose, maximum and minimum values are chosen for each indicator.
Maximum and Minimum values for calculation of HDI.

Performance in each dimension is expressed as a value between 0 and 1 by applying the following formula.
HDI = $$\frac{\text { Actual value }-\text { Minimum value }}{\text { Maximum value }-\text { Minimum value }}$$
HDI report 2014 has classified the selected countries into four categories.

1. Countries with the HDI value of 0.8 and above are grouped as the Very High Human Development Countries.
2. Countries with the HDI value ranging from 0.7 to 0.8 are grouped as High Human Development Countries.
3. Countries with the HDI value ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 are grouped as Medium Human Development Countries.
4. Countries with the HDI values of less than 0.5 are in the Low human Development Countries. India has improved its HDI index from 0.42 in 1980 to 0.554 in 2012.
5. India was ranked among 177 countries improved from 138 in 1994 to 128 in 2005, but now it has declined to 132 in 2007, 134 in 2008, 136 among 187 countries in latest report 2013.

Gender Related Development Index (GDI) : While HDI measures average achievement, the GDI adjusts the average achievement to reflect the inequalities between men and women, the three components used for the purpose are

1. Female life expectancy.
2. Female adult literacy and gross enrolment ratio.
3. Female percapita income.

If gender inequalities did not exists, the value of GDI and HDI would be the same, but if the gender inequality exists, the value of GDI would be lower than that of HDI. The greater the difference between HDI and GDI, the more in the inequality.

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) : The Gender Empowerment Measure was also introduced by the human development report 1995. The GEM indicates whether women are able to actively participate in economic and political life. It focuses on participation, measuring gender inequality in key areas of economic and political participation and decision making. There are three components, which are used for measuring GEM.

1. Participation of women in economic and political activities.
2. Gender inequality in economic and political participation.
3. Female empowerment.

Human Poverty Index (HPI) : The human development report 1997 introduced the human poverty index, which concentrates on deprivation in three essential elements of human life already reflected in HDI longevity knowledge and a decent living standard.

Question 10.
Population of India means the total number of people living in India. Population is very essential for the growth of country.

1. Population provides work force to produce goods and services.
2. Population provides market for the products that are produced.
3. Population promotes innovative ideas.
4. Population promote division of labour and specialisation.

1. Population put pressure on means of subsistance.
3. Population put pressure on social overheads like hospitals, schools, roads etc.
4. Population may result in increased consumption and reduced savings and capital formation.
5. Population may increase dependency.

Question 1.
Trends of world population.
In 1830, the total population of the world was one billion but it was doubled in 1930. By 1960 again population of the world increased by one more billion. By 1974 i.e., in 14 years the population increased 400 crores and it took only 13 years to reach the 500 crores mark in 1987. Therefore, the 12th July is known as World Population Day. In 2011 it was estimated 7.3 billion. Probably within next 3 to 4 decades by 2050 world population expected to be around 9.20 billion. 98% of world population growth will be developing countries.

Question 2.
Top 10 populous countries in the world. [A.P. Mar. 16]
The following shows that the list of top 10 populous countries in the world.

Question 3.
Causes of high birth rate in India.
Population increase because of high birth rate, low death rate and immigration. The birth rate has not declined significantly in India during the last five decades because a number of economic and social factors continue to favour high fertility.

1. Economic factors :
1. Predominance of agriculture
2. low urbanisation process
3. High incidence of poverty
2. Social factors :
1. Compulsory marriage
2. Early marriage
3. Religious belies and superstitions
4. Joint family system
5. Illiteracy

Question 4.
What are the family planning programmes in India ? [A.P. Mar. 17]
Importance of the family planning programme as a device to control population explosion is now universally recognised. In China, the state approved of one child norm and has succeeded in bringing down the birth rate 21.6 per thousand as against 26 per thousand in India in 2012. China is successful in bringing down the birth rate because of wide spread use of contraceptives.

The following aspects of the family planning programme in this country deserve particular mention.
1. Public Information Programme: Under public information programme, couples in the reproductive age are explained the usefulness of adopting family planning. Hence, the Government has decided to use all kinds of publicity, including cinema, radio, television and newspapers to propagate the importance of family planning.

2. Incentives and Disincentives : The Government has introduced various schemes under which incentives are being given to those who accept family planning. The system of cash prizes has given some inducement to the people in it for sterilisation. Family planning is completely voluntary’ in this country, coercive methods have been generally avoided. During the emergency period, forcible sterilisation was done. The Govt, take policy of decision that preference for employment will be given to the people who accept small family norm and those who reject family planning may be denied certain facilities.

3. Family planning centres: Establishment of family planning centres is an integral part of any family planning programme. These centres provide various clinical facilities needed for family planning. In addition to these, clinical centres, a large number of contraceptive distribution centres should also be located in both urban and rural areas.

4. Research : Research in the field of demography, communication action, reproduction biology and fertility control has to be given a high priority in any family planning programme.

Question 5.
Importance of human resource development.
Human resource development plays an important role in economic development. In¬fact, effective use of physical capital itself is dependent on human resources. This is due to the reason that if there is under investment in human resources the rate at which additional physical capital can be productively utilised will be limited since technical, professional and administrative people required to make effective use of material resources. Modem economists in recent times have pointed out that many third world countries have remained underdeveloped an account of underdevelopment of human resources.

Therefore, large scale investment in human resources are needed if physical capital available in these countries to be exploited more fully and in a more efficient way. It has also been observed that the development of human resources is intricately related to the process of the economic development. But proceed together and reinforce one another.

Question 6.
What is the role of education in rural development ? [A.P. Mar. ’18]
Education can contribute significantly to rural development in a variety of ways. By widening the horizons of knowledge of the rural people, it can enable them to overcome ignorance and superstitions. Adoption of new agricultural techniques and new methods of production is rendered easier if the farmers are educated. Education can be oriented as to import skills and attitudes useful in improving the quality of family life. For example, through education on subjects such as health and nutrition and improvement, family planning and child care etc.

India, education help rural people in acquiring skills to setup cottage industries as their own. So that, the disguised unemployed people can be fruitfully employed in the villagers themselves.

These observations point to the necessity of reorienting the educational system to the requirements of rural population. If such a thing can be accomplished, there is redoubt that education will contributes significantly to the process of rural development in the country.

Question 7.
Explain the education system in India.
The expenditure on education in India is not considered an investment most of the people and particularly the decision – makers in the Government think that education is just a social service and is meant only to improve the quality of man’s life. The importance of education in production is rarely recognized.

The present education system in India is not qualitatively different from the one introduced by macauley, a person who introduced British education system in India.

This system of education simply produces Clerks and Junior officers. Since independence this education system has not been changed much and therefore an educated person in India even now is for useful to society than could be. Infact, most of the so called educated people are just literate but are not helping much in improving the productivity.

Recognizing the importance of education, public expenditure on education was increased during the 11th plan. It is 4% of G.D.P. in 2011 -12 about 43% of public expenditure an education was incurred for elementary education, 25% for secondary education and balance 32% for higher education.

Question 8.
Health programmes in India.
The Government of India have been making continuous efforts to provide universal access to comprehensive health and family welfare services of acceptable standards of quality human capital.
The family planning programme was started in 1951 as a purely demographic initiative.

1. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was started in 2005 to provide accessible, affordable and quality health services to rural areas. In the rural areas the Government extended National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to towns as National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) in 2013. By combining NRHM and NUHM Government renamed it as National Health Mission (NHM).
2. Accredited Social Health Activities (ASHAs) have been selected and trained in health care for various villages.
3. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) was started to bring down Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). According to this scheme nearly 3.5 crore women have been covered.
4. Pradhan Mantri Swasthiya Yojana (PMSY) has been launched with the objectives of correcting regional imbalances in the availability of reliable health care services in the country.
5. Rogi Kalyan Samitis.
6. Village Health and Sanitation Committees.
7. Mobile Medical Units.
8. Ayurveda Yunani Siddha Homeo (AYUSH) Services.
9. Janani Sishu Suraksha Karyakramam (JSSK) was launched for mother and child care.

The 12th plan main aim is Universal Health Coverage (UHQ for all in the countiy. UHC broadly means ensuring equitable access to affordable and quality health services to all the people in India. Regardless of Income level, Social status, Gender, Caste or Religion.

Question 9.
Physical Quality of Life Index (PQU).
The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) is an attempt to measure the quality of life or well being of a country. The value is the average of three statistics : basic literacy rate, infant mortality and life expectancy at age one, all equally weighted on a 0 to 100 scale. It was developed for the overseas development council, in the mid 1970s by Morris David Morris, as one of a number of a measures created due to dissatisfaction with use of GNP as an indicator of development.

PQU might be regarded as an improvement but shares the general problems of measuring quality of life in an quantitative way. It has also been criticized because there is considerable overlap between infant mortality and life expectancy. The UN Human Development Index is a more widely used means of measuring well-being.

Steps Calculate Physical Quality of Life:

1. Find percentage of the population that is literate (literacy rate).
2. Find the infant mortality rate (out of 1000 births)
Indexed Infant Mortality Rate = (166 – Infant mortality) × 0.625
3. Find the life expectancy. Indexed Life Expectancy
(life + MO expectancy – 42) × 2.7
4. Physical Quality of Life
= $$\frac{\text { Literacy Rate + Indexed Infant Mortality Rate + Indexed Life Expectancy }}{3}$$

Question 1.
Population Explosion. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17, 16]
When the birth rate exceeds death rate during particular period of time.

Question 2.
Great dividing year of population.
The year 1921 is regarded as great dividing year of population because both birth and death rates were high before 1921, later death rate has been decreasing more rapidly than birth rate in India.

Question 3.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR).
It is calculated at a ratio of the number of death among the 1000 born children in a year.

Question 4.
Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR).
It is calculated at a ratio of the number of delivery deaths among the 1,00,000 women in a year.

Question 5.
Birth Rate.
It is calculated at a ratio of the number of births among the 1000 population in a year.

Question 6.
Death Rate.
It is calculated at a ratio of the number of deaths among the 1000 population in a year.

Question 7.
Urbanisation.
The proportion of urban population in India in 2001 was 27.8 percent as against 17.3 percent in 1951. If the economic development is going on people are migrate backward areas to urban areas. So the population density will be increase in urban areas, facing number of problems like high cost living sanitation, drainage, housing problems and high male – female ratio.

Question 8.
Joint family System.
Joint family system in India is very much common in rural areas. The joint family system induces young couples to have children since taking care of their bringing up at home is not a problem in a joint family their economic burden is carried and shered by the earning members.

Question 9.
Occupational Distribution of Population.
Occupational Distribution of Population refers to the number and ratio work force participation in the total population. The working population of the country is engaged in three different kinds of occupations known as primary occupation, secondary occupation and tertiary occupation.

Question 10.
Primary Sector.
The primary occupation include all these essential activities such as agriculture and allied activities like animal husbandry, forestry, fishery, poultry etc., changes in occupational structure are very much associated with economic development.

Question 11.
Tertiary Sector. [A.P. Mar. ’18]
Tertiary sector is also called service sector. Trade, transport, communications, banking, insurance, education, health etc., are included in service sector. Tertiary activities help primary and secondary activities in the country.

Question 12.
Human. Resource Development.
The term human resource development refers to the process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who have the skill education and experience. Which are critical for the economic and political development of a country.

Question 13.
Literacy Rate.
Literacy Rate = × 100

Question 14.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA). [A.P. Mar. 18, 17, 16]
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan has been introduced during 2001 – 2002. With an aim to provide universal elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. SSA has now been renamed as Rajiv Vidya Mission in Andhra Pradesh.

Question 15.
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY). [A.P. Mar. 18]
The scheme has dual objectives of reducing maternal and infant mortality by promoting institial deliveries. JSY has started in the year 2005 – 2006.

Question 16.
Human Development Index (HDI).
Human Development Index measures the average achievement in the three basic dimensions of human development. They are life expectancy adult literary rate and decent standard of living.

Question 17.
Gender Related Index (GDI).
Gender related index adjusts the average achievement to reflect the inequalities between men and women. The three components used for the purpose are

1. Female life expectancy
3. Female percapita income.

Question 18.
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM).
The Gender Empowerment Measure was also introduced by the human development index report 1995. There are three components, which are used for measuring GEM.

1. Participation of women in economic and political activities.
2. Gender inequality in economic and political participation.
3. Female empowerment.

Question 19.
Human Poverty Index (HPI).