AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Important Questions Chapter 18 Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77).
AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Important Questions 18th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)
10th Class Social 18th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77) 1 Mark Important Questions and Answers
Why do you think the tribal languages were ignored at the time of the creation of the states in 1956?
The languages spoken by dominant or powerful populations were considered at that time, so the tribal language were ignored.
What is the main aim of Panchsheel policy?
To establish a foreign policy on the basis of Gandhian principles like peace and non-violence.
What were the main challenges before the leaders of the country in the early years after Independence?
- To maintain unity and integrity.
- Reorganization of states without disturbing unity and integrity.
- To bring about social and economic transformation
Write any two rural development programmes of Nehru.
The rural development programmes are:
The strategy favoured by Nehru and finally adopted included three components.
- Land reforms,
- Agricultural co-operatives and
- Local self-government.
Three types of land reforms were contemplated, a) abolition of Zamindari system, b) tenancy reform and c) land ceilings.
Why is the Green Revolution Compulsory in India?
Green Revolution in India is compulsory because.
- To meet the needs of the increasing population by increasing food production.
- To use better water management.
What is the difference between a single-party system and multi-party system?
- Single party system – prevailing only one party
- Multi-party system – prevailing many parties.
What was the main reason behind introducing symbols to represent political parties and candidates by Election Commission?
To overcome the problem of illiteracy.
What is meant by ‘Universal Adult Franchise’?
Universal Adult Franchise:
All the people who attain the age of 18 years, irrespective of caste, creed, religion gender language have the right to vote.
What are the land reforms proposed by Jawaharlal Nehru?
According to Nehru’s proposal of land reforms are:
- Abolition of Zamindari System
- Tenancy reforms
- Land ceiling. Some land is fixed. No one should hold more than that extent.
What did the Election Commission of India do for the illiterates to cast their vote?
The Election Commission of India introduced symbols for the political parties and contesting candidates for the sake of illiterates to cost their vote easily.
What is the Constitution sought for?
The Constitution is sought to fulfil multiple goals simultaneously, including making democracy work, unification and creation of a single political community and bringing about massive social and economic changes.
What was a great achievement?
The setting of national goals and putting in place institutional mechanisms to achieve them within a relatively short span of time was undoubtedly a great achievement for a people who had been ruled by a foreign power for more than two centuries.
How can you say that first general elections were immensely significant for Indian democracy?
The first elections were difficult because of the social dimensions also.
Why was an Election Commission set up?
An Election Commission was set up to take care of the practical matters of conducting elections across the length and breadth of the country.
What was called the Congress System?
The Congress party formed the government in many of the states as well. This inaugurated what some observers called the Congress System.
Write about the groupism in Congress.
Congress always had within small groups. Though these groups originated on the basis of personal competition between leaders, they shared in the overall goals of the party but differed on some policy issues.
What enabled Indian politics to develop a multiparty democracy?
It was the strength of the Constitutional framework and the democratic foundations laid by the freedom movement which enabled Indian politics to develop a multiparty democracy.
Write a challenge of the new nation.
Among the first challenges the new nation faced was the demand for the reorganization of states on the basis of language.
How was the country divided during British rule?
During the British period, the country was divided into Presidencies (Calcutta, Madras and Bombay) and a number of very large states like Central Provinces and Berar. A large part of the country was under princely states.
What was the fear regarding the language reorganisation?
The partition of the country on the basis of religion had created doubts and fears about the security and stability of India in the minds of the leadership. There was the fear that language reorganization would lead to breaking up of the country.
When were the A.P. and Tamil Nadu state created?
Potti Sriramulu demanding the formation of a separate Telugu speaking state died after 58 days of fasting in October 1952. Consequently, the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu were created.
What was at the top of the agenda of modern India?
The Constituent Assembly had called for social, economic and political justice and equality of status and opportunity, it put social and economic change at the top of the agenda of modern India.
What were the two questions that divide a political opinion?
The two main questions that divided political opinion were:
- What place agriculture should have in the larger development strategy?
- How should resources be allocated between industry and agriculture?
What did the planners feel?
The planners felt that for the country to develop it was essential to develop industries so that more people can shift to towns to work in factories and in the service sector. Hence from the Second Five Year Plan onwards, the emphasis shifted to industries.
Who formulated Panchsheel and for what?
As for the immediate neighbours Nehru formulated the Panchsheel policy of non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
Who succeeded Sastri?
Indira Gandhi succeeded Sastri as Prime Minister after his untimely death in 1966.
Name some assemblies in which the Congress defeated.
It was defeated in assemblies like Bihar, U.P., Rajasthan, Punjab, West Bengal, Orissa, Madras and Kerala.
Who was MGR?
He was a popular hero in Tamil Nadu.
How were SVD governments?
Many of these SVD governments were short-lived. Their life was marked by defections and corruption. Power seemed to be the only thing that united them. These governments had nothing to showcase.
What was the regional sentiment in A.P.?
In Andhra Pradesh, there was a demand for the separation of Telangana. The movement was spearheaded by students of Osmania University, whose main grouse was that the benefits of development were going to only some sections of the state.
What was Bangladesh?
It was East Pakistan.
What was popular slogan in 1971 election?
The popular slogan in 1971 election was “Garibi Hatao”.
What were the important legislations during the period of Indira Gandhi?
- Nationalisation of many private banks.
- Abolition of princely pensions.
What happened in 1973?
In 1973, the Court came up with the landmark decision on the Basic Structure of the Constitution, which put a checkon the governmental power to amend the Constitution.
Write any two ill effects of the Emergency period.
- The fundamental rights were suspended.
- There were also instances of arbitrary arrests, torture and violation of civil liberties.
How was Meghalia formed?
- Meghalaya was formed in 1969; Meghalaya formerly belonged to Assam.
- It was formed out of the tribal districts of Khasi, Jaintia and Garo hills.
State Reorganization Committee.
Write two important events occurred during Lai Bahadur Shastry period.
- Official language Act in 1963 and anti-Hindi agitation.
- War with Pakistan in 1965.
10th Class Social 18th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77) 2 Marks Important Questions and Answers
Observe the given Pie diagram and discuss the 2014 General Elections.
- B.J.P. is the largest party with 282 seats.
- INC got only 44 seats.
- AIADMK got 37 seats
- TDP got 16 seats.
- Others got 140 seats.
Read the following passage and answer the given question.
With this democracy was put on hold. The government began a series of repressive measures, claiming that this was necessary to bring order in the country. Many of the fundamental rights were suspended. There were also instances of arbitrary detention, torture and other violations of civil liberties. While people welcomed control over prices rise and the campaign against black marketing and bonded labour many programmes undertaken by the emergency government such as demolition of slums and forced sterilisation in the name of population control became very unpopular. However, in the absence of civic freedom people could not express their discontent and the government therefore could not take corrective measures.
What were the changes taken place in an emergency?
- Democracy was put on hold.
- The government began a series of repressive measures in the name of law and order.
- Fundamental rights were suspended.
- Forced sterilization in the name of population control.
- In the absence of civil rights, people could not express their discontent.
What are the aims of the 42nd Constitutional Amendment?
- To exclude the courts from election disputes.
- To strengthen the central government vis-a-vis the State Governments.
- To provide maximum protection from judicial challenges towards social and economic transformation legislation.
- To make the judiciary subservient to the parliament.
Read the following paragraph and comment in your own words.
One of the greatest weaknesses was undoubtedly the low priority given to primary education and public health. This was going to hurt India for a long time to come. Other countries like China and Korea which also began a new inning around the same time, did much better on these two counts as compared to India.
- Primary education and public health are the most important aspects.
- They have to be given utmost priority in any state.
- Unfortunately in India, both these sectors could not develop as per expectations.
- The government had to play a key role in these sectors to achieve the targets.
How were the land reforms implemented in India? How far did these reforms benefit the people?
- Land reforms were however implemented in a half-hearted manner across India.
- While the Zamindari system was abolished, redistribution of land to the landless did not take place.
- The rich and powerful in the rural areas continued to control most of the land.
- The Dalits continued to be landless but benefited from the abolition of forced labour and abolition of untouchability.
Read the following paragraph and interpret the changes taken place in the social and economic fields in India.
Land reforms were implemented in a halfhearted manner across India. While the Zamindari system was abolished, redistribution of land to landless did not take place. The rich and powerful in the rural areas continued to control most of the land. The dalits continued to be landless but benefited from the abolition of forced labour and abolition of untouchability.
The Constituent Assembly had called for social, economic and political justice and equality of status and opportunity as its agenda.
- For that the Planning Commission was set up within a month. The First Five Year Plan focussed on agriculture.
- The strategy favoured by Nehru and finally adopted included three components.
- Agricultural co-operatives
- Local Self Government
- Three types of land reforms were contemplated:
- Abolition of Zamindari system
- Tenancy reforms and
- Land Ceilings.
- Local self-government would ensure that the land reforms were carried out and the coopera¬tives run according to the collective interests of the village.
- Dams were constructed and were useful to both the agriculture and industrial sector.
- The Second Five Year Plan shifted emphasis to industries. As a result, the service sector also would develop.
Which qualities of Lai Bahadur Shastri do you like? Why?
After the death of Nehru in 1964, Congress managed a successful transition with the choos¬ing of Lai Bahadur Sastri as its leader in government. Sastri was immediately put to test with a series of issues which challenged the fundamental values and goals of the Indian nation. These included the Anti-Hindi agitation led by the DMK in the South, which threatened the goals of unity and integrity, the shortage of food which came in the way of social and economic transformation, besides a war with Pakistan in 1965.
Draw an outline map of India.
What are the results of the Green Revolution?
Results of Green Revolution:
- Increase in net sown area
- Increase in double-cropped area
- Progress in the irrigation sector
- Increase in per hectare yield level
- Increase in the area under High Yielding Varieties
- Increase in the use of fertilizers.
Write the differences between Regional party and the National Party.
State Party: In a state, if a party wins 3% of valid votes or 3 Assembly seats, it is declared as a regional/state party. A party can be recognised in more than one state.
National Party: If a party is recognized in four states with 6% of valid votes or 11 Loksabha M.P seats from 4 different states, it is called a national party.
Create two slogans on “the importance of voting”.
Your vote – Your weapon
Cast your vote – Change your fate
Vote is valuable – Don’t sell it
Read the passage and answer the following question.
A few days later, with the JP movement gaining more strength, the government imposed Emergency and justified it as necessary to preserve order, save democracy, protect the social and economic transformation and preserve national integrity.
Comment on the above text.
- When J.P. movement gaining more strength, the government imposed Emergency.
- Democracy was put on hold.
- Fundamental rights were suspended.
- There were instances of arbitrary arrests and the violation of civil liberties.
- The emergency period weakened the democratic fabric of our country.
Observe the following map and answer the following questions.
a) Name the states that are bordering Hyderabad state.
Bombay State, Andhra state and Mysore state were surrounding the Hyderabad state.
b) How many states were there in the southern peninsula?
There were eight states in the southern peninsula. They are
- Bombay state
- Hyderabad state,
- Mysore state,
- Andhra state,
- Madras state,
- Coorg state,
- Pondicherry state,
- Travancore-Cochin state.
Observe the following map and answer the following questions.
a) What was the smallest state that is there between Madras and Mysore state?
“Coorg” was the smallest state between Madras and Mysore states.
b) Name the southernmost state from the above map.
Travancore – Cochin state was the southern most state.
Read the following paragraph and answer the following question.
Jawaharlal Nehru was not opposed to linguistic states; he only believed that this was not the time for it. It was also the consensual position among the leaders of the day. They believed that India was in the process of consolidating Itself and there should be no distraction.
Was Nehru opposing “Liquistic reorganization of states”?
- No. Nehru was not opposed to linguistic states.
- He thought it was not a right time for reorganization.
- Still India was consolidating itself.
- At this moment there should not be any distraction.
- Hence Nehru thought that it was not the right time to reorganization.
Read the following paragraph and answer the following question.
When India became independent the Cold War had just begun and the world was being polarised into countries in the US or USSR camp. Jawaharlal Nehru followed a policy of not joining either camp and tried to maintain an equidistant and independent position in foreign policy. He also joined hands with several other countries that had become independent around the same time and wanted to follow a similar policy – Indonesia, Egypt, Yugoslavia, and so on. Together they built the Non Aligned Movement. As for the immediate neighbours he formulated the Panchsheel policy of non-interference in each other’s internal affairs. However, India had to face two wars during this period, first with Pakistan over Kashmir in 1948 and with China in 1962. India was not well prepared for the wars, especially the war in 1962 and sustained heavy losses of human life and money.
What was our foreign policy and did that policy help us to avoid wars with our neighbours?
- We became independent in the bipolarized world.
- We followed a policy of not joining in the US or the USSR camp.
- Along with other countries like Indonesia, Egypt, Yugoslavia we built the Non-Alignment movement
- In spite of our policy of Non-Alignment, we had to face two wars with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971 and one war with China, i.e. in 1962.
- These wars ended with heavy losses of human life and money.
- We have always been peace-loving and follow our policy in spite of hurdles.
What were the challenges before the leadership?
The main challenges before the leadership were the need to maintain unity and integrity, bring about a social and economic transformation and to ensure the working of the democratic system. These challenges are interrelated and great care had to be taken to ensure that the system did not get imbalanced.
Mention the social dimension time of the first general elections.
A large section of the population did not know how to read and write. In some parts of the country, women were known by their father’s or husband’s name, they did not have an independent identity. This has to change if women were to have equal rights and take the country towards greater social equality.
How did the Election Commission overcome the problem of illiteracy?
To overcome the problem of illiteracy, the Election Commission came up with a novel idea of having symbols from everyday life to represent political parties and candidates. This creative innovation dispensed with elaborate instructions and required only visual identification. This basic idea continues even today. To make it even easier, in the first election each candidate had a separate ballot box with the symbol stuck outside; the voter only had to drop their ballot paper in the box of their preferred candidate.
How were the first three general elections?
In Independent India’s first three general elections in 1952,1957 and 1962, the Indian National Congress won reducing other participants to almost nothing. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India. None of the other parties individually got more than 11% of the votes polled.
What was the result of groupism in Congress party?
The groups took different positions on various issues depending on the interests of the members. This made the Congress appear as if it was a party representing diverse interests and positions. At times, these groups also tied up with other political parties to pressurise the leadership. This also acted as an inbuilt corrective mechanism within the ruling party. Political competition in the one- party dominant system, therefore, took place within the Congress. The opposition parties therefore only posed a latent and not a real threat.
What was the planning for Nehru?
For Nehru planning was not only good economics but good politics as well. He hoped that planned development would dissolve the divisions of caste and religion, community and region as well as other disruptive and disintegrative tendencies and help India to emerge as a strong and modern nation.
Write about the First Five Year Plan.
The First Five Year Plan focussed on agriculture and stressed on the need for increased food production, development of transport and communications and the provision of social services. It also stressed the need to industrialise India as quickly as possible. Given that food was a basic requirement, there was a consensus on increasing food production but there was no agreement on how this should be achieved.
How were land reforms implemented?
Land reforms were implemented in a half-hearted manner across India. While Zamindari system was abolished, redistribution of land to the landless did not take place. The rich and powerful in the rural areas continued to control most of the land. The Dalits continued to be landless but benefitted from the abolition of forced labour and abolition of untouchability.
Write about laws during the First Five Year Plan.
The First Five Year Plan focussed on improving agriculture by building large dams to irrigate and produce electricity. Dams benefitted both the agriculture and the industrial sector. Though there was an increase in agricultural production, it was still not sufficient to meet the needs of the population.
Explain the need of Green revolution.
The existing strategy was not increasing food production, there was a shift to different strategy between the years 1964-67. This attempted to secure the cooperation of the state governments as well as increase food production. In a way it also reflected the changes in economic policy after the death of Nehru and also the changes in economic thinking as well.
Explain the reason for the given statement: The new governments are important markers.
The new governments are an important marker in India’s political history because it was in a way the first democratic upsurge. It was for the first time the intermediate castes; the groups who had first benefitted from the land reforms and acquired some degree of economic standing gained political power. They were the dominant castes in their respective states and also had a significant numerical presence.
What were the reactions of government before emergency?
The government reacted harshly with a series of laws which violated civil rights in the name of maintaining order. The opposition also criticised the Prime Minister for personalising the government. Meanwhile, due to a decision of Allahabad High Court Indira Gandhi was unseated from Lok Sabha for violating some of the provisions of the Representation of the Peoples Act during the 1971 elections. However, she got a stay from the Supreme Court.
In the west, franchise was extended in stages, first to propertied and only subsequently to other sections of society. But independent India adopted Universal Adult Franchise at one go. Why was it so?
- The first general elections in independent India were immensely significant for Indian democracy.
- It represented India’s determination to take the path of democracy.
- Earlier British provided franchise to propertied and educated as well as taxpayers only.
- But independent India wanted every adult to indicate his choice.
- That is how democracy would be more meaningful.
- So, independent India adopted Universal Adult Franchise immediately.
Why were many of the Samyukta Vidhayak Dal governments short-lived ?
- Many of the Samyukta Vidhayak Dal governments were short-lived.
- Their life was marked by defections and corruptions.
- Power seems to be the only thing united them.
- These governments had nothing to showcase.
- Even today, the regional or state parties are evaluated from this standpoint.
“The 73rd Constitutional Amendment is useful for Local Self Government”. Explain reasons.
- 73rd Constitutional amendment definitely useful for local self-government.
- State governments decide on what functions were to be devolved to local self-governments.
- Women and scheduled caste and tribes are provided with reservation of seats in local self-governments.
“Too much centralisation of power makes that power totalitarian and takes it towards fascist ideals”. Analyse it.
- Too much centralisation of power makes that power totalitarian and takes it towards fascist ideals. ,
- After the record victory of 1971 elections, Indira Gandhi gained control over Congress Party and Parliament.
- Most people suffered inflation, rising prices of essential commodities, unemployment and scarcity of food, but when their grievances were not addressed they supported JP movement.
- To stop that movement she imposed emergency.
- During Emergency, Democracy was put on hold.
Imagine and write the main reasons for the continuation of anti-Hindi movement in Tamil Nadu till today.
- DMK in Tamil Nadu believed the passage of Official Languages Act, 1963 was an attempt to foist Hindi on the rest of the country.
- They started a statewide campaign protesting the imposition of Hindi. This was called anti- Hindi agitation.
- They organised strikes, dharnas, burning effigies, Hindi books as well as pages of Constitution.
- The government made English and Hindi as official languages.
- Till now, Tamilians have anti feelings towards Hindi.
10th Class Social 18th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77) 4 Marks Important Questions and Answers
Read the following table and answer the following questions.
|1.||Non – alignment||Nehru||1955 -1961|
|2.||Green revolution||M.S. Swaminathan||1964 -1967|
|3.||Emergency||Indira Gandhi||1975 -1977|
i) Which two countries were signed on Panchasheela pact?
China and India.
ii) When did Planning begin in India?
iii) Name the Prime Minister who imposed emergency in India.
iv) What is green revolution?
A large increase in the production of food grains due to the introduction of high yielding varieties, to the use of pesticides and to better management techniques.
Observe the following table and answer the following questions.
|S.No.||Name of the state||Formation||Capital||Special features|
|1.||Jharkhand||15th November, 2000||Ranchi||40% of mineral resources of India|
|2.||Uttarakhand||9th November, 2000||Dehradun||Sanskrit is one of the official languages|
|3.||Chattisgarh||1st November, 2000||Raipur||15% of total steel production|
i) From which state, Jharkhand was separated?
ii) Mention one special feature of Uttarakhand.
Sanskrit is one of the official languages.
iii) Which state was formed on 1st November 2000?
iv) Which state was separated from Madhya Pradesh?
Write your comments on the opinion of Ambedkar given below.
On the 26th of January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics, we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality.
- This opinion of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is very much true.
- As everyone has his right tp vote and each vote has the same value, we can say that there is political equality.
- As there is discrimination in many aspects, social equality is becoming a question
- As there are wide inequalities in incomes of the people, there is no economic equality.
- These inequalities need to be addressed at the earliest possible moment.
Describe the situation of India during the Emergency period.
- The democracy was put on hold.
- Many Fundamental rights were suspended.
- Civil liberties were violated.
- People could not even express their discontent.
- Slums were demolished.
- Forced sterilization went on the name of population control.
Read the given data and answer the following questions:
|1.||Right to vote.||Switzerland women got it in 1971.|
|2.||Election symbols.||To assist the illiterates.|
|3.||Victory of Congress.||1952,1957,1962 Elections.|
|4.||Andhra Mahasabha.||To unite Telugu speaking people in Madras Presidency.|
|5.||State Reorganisation Act.||1956|
|6.||First Five Year Plan.||Agriculture|
1. When was first linguistic state formed?
2. Mention one of the challenges faced by Election Commission in conducting First General Elections.
3. In which Five Year Plan, was agriculture given importance?
Agriculture was given importance is the First Five Year Plan.
4. What party dominated Indian politics in first 3 decades of independent India?
Indian National Congress.
Read the following table and answer the questions.
|S.No.||Name of the Party||Year 1952||Year 1962|
|1.||Indian National Congress||364||361|
|2.||Communist Party of India||16||29|
|4.||Kisan Mazdur Party||09||—|
|5.||People’s Democratic Front||07||—|
|10.||Praja Socialist Party||—||12|
Table showing the parliamentary seat sharing of various political parties
a) Which political parties got their majority in 1962 than in 1952?
b) Which political parties had disappeared till 1962?
- Jana Sangh
- Praja Socialist Party
c) Which political parties lost their seats in 1952 and in 1962?
1962: Kisan Mazdur Party, People’s Democratic Front, Ganatantra Parishad
d) Which political parties lost their majority in 1962 than in 1952?
Others, Independents, Congress.
Read the paragraph given below and interpret.
India has been extremely successful in holding together and maintaining Its unity and integrity. India was seen a fit case for breakup given Its extreme diversities and the fact that It has not done so, Is a valuable lesson has many other countries.
- India is a vast country with diversity.
- There are a good number of religious, castes, tribes and languages.
- People speaking a particular language have a culture and they identify themselves as a separate entity.
- But National Integrity lies on the fact of “one nation and one race”.
- In India all communities people joined together and celebrate all festivals.
- India gave Right to vote to all eligible citizens without discrimination.
- Even the highest post President of India is also elected from different communities.
- This shows India follows, unity and integrity.
Observe the following table and write a paragraph analyzing it.
Summary of the 2014 – Indian General Elections
The given table describes the summary of the 2014 general elections in India. In the given table two parties that is Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress are compared. It is not only the party comparison but their alliances are also mentioned. The Bharatiya Janata Party alliance is National Democratic Alliance whereas the United Progressive Alliance is related to Indian National Congress. In these elections, the NDA got 31% of the votes whereas the UPA got 19.31%. If we observe the seats, the BJP with its alliance won 282 whereas the INC won only 44. These elections are very crucial because the voter strongly rejected the Pre-independence party which ruled India since 1947. For a long time it was a single largest party to win the seats in Lok sabha. The voters cleverly gave a mandate to the Bharatiya Janata Party with the hopes that their future may be changed. The BJP announced the Prime Ministerial candidate, Narendra Modi in advance. He achieved and succeeded in Gujarat as Chief Minister. So the voters accepted him as Prime Minister also. They believed him. Congress lost faith of the people because of its failures. During the Congress period there was a lot of corruption, scams and nepotism, etc. Many of the Congress members of Parliament were in court cases. Rajiv Gandhi himself declared that corruption is highly established in India. If the Bharatiya Janata Party with its alliance work for the development of the country, definitely they will win the next coming 2019 elections. So the party should keep this in mind and work in that direction
Read the given paragraph and write your opinion.
The partition of the country on the basis of religion had created doubts and fears about the security and stability of India in the minds of the leadership. There was a fear that language reorganisation would lead to break down of the country.
Opinion on Paragraph:
The given paragraph says that our country was divided on the basis of religion. So some doubts are created about the security and stability of India. Language reorganisation was another fear. Congress promised to restructure the country on the lines of language.
Everyone knows that India was divided and Pakistan was formed on the basis of religion. Bengal and Punjab were divided into East Bengal – West Bengal and East Punjab – West Punjab. East Bengal became East Pakistan and West Punjab became West Pakistan. In 1970s East Pakistan declared itself independence after the war. Then Bangladesh was formed. The two newly formed countries are of the Muslim majority. Many leaders are afraid about the security and stability of the country. In Pakistan and Bangladesh, a few Hindus are there and in India there are Muslims. Now the position of Hindus in Pakistan and Bangladesh is worst. They have no minority status and rights, but in India minorities are given special attention under Article 29 and 30. The demand of language-based reorganisation was also a problem. At last the States Reorganisation Committee worked out and the States are formed based on the language. Though the States are formed based on language, nothing was weakened as expected but it helped India integrated. Based on the language someone is a Tamilian or Telanganite, he/she is an Indian. Such a feeling is there in all the states. There is a criticism that tribal languages are ignored but they also live in the states safely.
Besides religion, language is also a predominant issue. In erstwhile Andhra Pradesh the language problem was there. Andhra language is greater than Telangana was a feeling. In cinemas, books, cultural programmes and songs Telangana language was degraded and humiliated in many ways. It has become one of the reasons for Telangana separate state movement. Finally, separate Telangana was formed.
In conclusion, I would say, whatever the religion or language is everyone is a human being first next he/she is an Indian. Religion is one’s personal. One can follow the religion he/she likes. The feeling such as one’s religion is greater than others, destroys and destructs the other. Gradually it degrades the country at international level. We hope and wish universal brotherhood. We got independence with lot of stress and strain. We should not spoil its spirit.
Observe the following table and analyse it.
Seat share of various political parties in 1952 and 1962
|1.||Indian National Congress||364||361|
|2.||Communist Party of India||16||29|
From the given table we understand how the national parties gained seats in 1952 and 1962 general elections.
- Comparing 1952 & 1962, we come to know that INC lost three seats; Communist Party of India gained 13 more seats than previous election.
- Independent parties lost 17 seats.
- Socialist Party drowned to half of its previous seats.
- Others too lost 11 seats when compared to previous election.
In my opinion, the other parties which contested were not able to win enough seats to challenge the Congress Party.
Observe the given table and analyse the data of Electors.
Election Commission of India
Lok Sabha Elections, 2014 (16th Lok Sabha)
|No. of Electors||43.7 Crores||39.7 Crores||28.5 Thousands||83.4 Crores|
|No. of Electors who voted||29.2 Crores||26.01 Crores||1968||55.3 Crores|
The given table is about the details of Lok Sabha Elections 2014, (16th Lok Sabha) Turn out of the voters issued by Election Commission of India. In the given table male, female and other voters number and their casting of vote particulars are given. Male voters are 43.7 crores whereas 39.7 crores female voters are listed out. Polling percentage in male is 67% and in female it is 65.54%, others only 7%. Out of 83 crore voters 55 crore voters cast their vote.
In democracy voting decides the rulers. Before elections many malpractices are going on the voters are lured with money, liquor, sarees, cricket kits what not many more. Surprising thing is that educated voters are also not excepted.
It is sad in democracy. If all educated and uneducated voters cast their vote by not inclining to any attractions and cast their vote for real leaders then we can say democracy is alive.
In cities like Hyderabad, recent election voting percentage is below 50%. Government should think, why these people are not turning out to cost their vote. In most IT companies they enjoy the day of polling will be a holiday. Rural people turn a lot of costing their vote.
For urban people, Election Commission should come out with a proposal of online voting or evoting. Then percentage will be increased. It is my suggestion.
Analyse the advantages and problems faced by the people due to the Multi-party system in India.
- In the first three general elections in 1952,1957 and 1962 the Congress Party won and led to single party dominance.
- It was a kind of undemocratic situation marked by the absence of other political parties.
- To strengthen the democratic foundations multi-party system emerged.
- It almost checked the single party dominance of Congress.
- The oppositions started critisizing the government.
- People now have chance to choose the right party.
- Multi-party system strengthens the constitutional frame work and democracy.
Observe the following pie diagram and answer the questions that follow.
1. Which political party secured less seats ?
Ganatantra Parishad party secured less number of seal
2. What are the total number of seats that were elected?
The total number of seats that were elected are 489.
3. How many seats were secured by Indian National Congress?
Indian National Congress Secured the maximum 364 seats.
4. Which political party secured 16 seats?
Communist Party of India secured 16 seats.
5. How many seats were secured by Kissan Majdoor Party?
Kissan Majdoor Party secured 9 seats.
Observe the given pie diagram and answer the following questions.
a) What were the total number of seats that were elected?
The total number of seats that were elected were 494.
b) Which party secured maximum number of seats?
Indian National Congress secured maximum number of seats.
c) How many seats were secured by Communist Party of India?
Communist Party of India secured 29 seats.
d) Which party secured minimum of seats?
Socialists Party secured minimum number of seats.
e) How many seats were secured by others?
Others secured 27 seats.
Read the information and answer the following questions.
Compare the above Pie diagrams.
- The above pie diagrams reveal the fact that there was an undemocratic situation marked by the absence of other political parties.
- In both the election the Congress won maximum seats, i.e., 364 in 1952 and 361 in 1962 election.
- Other parties were unable to challenge the Congress.
- Ganatantra Parishad Party secured less seats in 1952 whereas Socialist Party secured less seats in 1962 elections.
- The Communist Party of India secured more seats in 1962 i.e., 29 when compared with 16 in 1952 elections.
Read the following and comment on it.
The partition of the country on the basis of religion had created doubts and fears about the security and stability of India in the minds of the leadership. There was the fear that language reorganisation would lead to break up of the country. Hence, even though the Congress itself was organised on the linguistic lines and had promised to restructure the country on those lines, it developed cold feet when independence came.
- The partition of India created a lot of insecurity in the minds of the people.
- How to maintain the integrity of the country became a burning topic.
- There was a fear that the language reorganization would lead to breakup of the country.
- But state reorganization committee was established.
- Reorganization Act was passed in 1956.
- Our leaders took initiative in this direction and regional languages were recognized as state official language.
- English was given the status of communicating language.
- Hence linguistic reorganization did not create any problem.
Observe the following map and answer the questions given below.
a) Which was the smallest area shown in the map?
Pondicherry was the smallest area shown in the map.
b) Which small state was there in between Madras and Mysore states?
Coorg was the small state in between Madras and Mysore states.
c) Which was the southernmost state from the map ?
Travancore – Cochin state was the southernmost state.
d) Which was the eastern state?
Andhra state was the eastern state.
e) Name the boundaries of Andhra State.
Bay of Bengal, Hyderabad, Mysore and Tamil Nadu were the boundaries of Andhra State.
Locate the following on the outline map of India.
- Uttar Pradesh
Locate the following in the given map of World.
- Suez canal belongs to this country
- New Zealand