Telangana SCERT TS 6th Class Social Study Material Pdf Lesson 3B Penamakuru – A Village in the Krishna Delta Textbook Questions and Answers.
3B Penamakuru – A Village in the Krishna Delta – TS 6th Class Social 3rd Lesson Questions and Answers Telangana
What kind of changes are taking place in Penamakuru village ?
- In olden days, the farmers of Penamakuru cultivated red gram, green gram and millets on the uplands.
- Nowadays these crops have been replaced with vegetables and sugarcane which require irrigation.
- Recently there has been an increasing use of groundwater through the borewells to cultivate the uplands which cannot be easily irrigated with canal water.
How do the poor and the landless earn their livelihood in the plains ?
The poor and landless live in nearby hamlets on the banks of the canal and south of village. In the middle of the village, we can also find kirana shops, bank. R.M.P Doctor, medical shops, iron welding shops, hair saloons, tiffin shops etc. The main village is inhabited only by land owning people. On the banks of Bandar canal live 15 – 20 Basket weaving families. The families who don’t have land either lease in the land of the landed farmers or work as labourers on their farms.
What are the difficulties of farming in plain villages like Penamakuru ?
- Villages like Penamakuru which is on plain also have few difficulties of farming.
- As there is no rain in October, it is necessary to irrigate the lands with water either from the canal or the wells or tanks.
- The lands towards the western and northern side are on higher elevation and cannot be easily irrigated with canal water.
- In such areas farmers use borewells.
- At times, flood waters prove very destructive as well as productive.
What will happens if all farmers of the village to grow only sugarcane or turmeric ?
Cultivation of commercial crops like sugarcane or turmeric leads to scarcity of foodcrops. If the farmers of the rest of the state feel so, starvation occurs. So the
farmers should feel the responsibility of the state welfare.
Why do plains like the Krishna delta have a very dense settlement ?
a) Delt a lands are very fertile and give high yields.
b) The lands are favourable for cultivation of all kinds of crops.
c) Well developed transport facilities help the farmers in shifting the crop returns to mills and Rythu Bazars.
d) The surplus received by the large farmers will be turned as capital and lead to the establishment of new industries. As a result there will be increase in employment opportunities.
Point out different landforms on the map of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Colour them as given below.
a) plain – green
b) plateau – yellow
c) mountains – brown
How are the people of handicrafts helped by the government ?
- The people of handicrafts are helped by the government in many ways.
- They are provided with tools and implements.
- Their produce / production are purchased or marketed by the government.
- They are provided with training to improve their skills.
- They are assisted by the finance corporations.
Describe the relief features of TelanganAnswer:
- Telangana is situated on the Deccan plateau.
- It covers 114,840 square kilometres.
- The region is drained by two major perennial rivers namely Godavari and KrishnAnswer:
- It is also drained by several minor rivers.
- Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominatly hot and dry climate
- Summers start in march and reach peak in may
- Monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September.
- A dry, mild winters starts in November and lasts until early February.
I. Conceptual Understanding
How are the soils formed in Penamakuru region ?
A) Alluvial soils : In Penamakuru, the soils are mostly fertile alluvial black soils. The soils deposited by the’river are called alluvial soils or ondru bhumi. Alluvial soils are heavy and have high water holding capacity. They are also rich in nutrients.
B) Black soils: We can find fine and clayey black soils upto a depth of 15 feet. They get very sticky with rain and retain moisture for a long time. When they dry up they tend to crack-this causes what is called self-ploughing and causes fertility.
C) Sandy soils : Some parts of the village nearer to the river on the West and South have sandy soils.
What are the agro industries in Penamakuru ?
- Poultry and rice mills are based on agriculture and therefore are called agro¬industries.
- This is a common feature in the plains.
- They get the necessary raw materials and the market for their produce is easily at hand.
- So, poultry and rice mills are the agro based industries in Penamakuru.
Where was the Prakasam Barrage constructed ?
- Vijayawada city is located at the head of the Krishna Delta on its northern bank.
- A barrage was built across the river at Vijayawada in 1853 by the British rulers.
- It’s now called Prakasam Barrage.
- The water is diverted by this barrage into canals and is used to irrigate about twelve lakh acres of land.
What is the relation between moisture level in the soil and crop production ?
- Alluvial soils are heavy and have high water loading capacity. They are also rich in nutrients. Crops grow well in those moisture levels.
- Clayey Black soils get very sticky with rain and retain moisture for a long time. They also retain water for long duration. Cotton is predominantly grown.
- Sandy soils are infertile soils. The capacity of these soils to retain moisture is very less. If moisture level increases, crops grow well. If moisture level decreases crops don’t grow well except few crops.
Is the rain adequate for agriculture in your area ?
We live in plateau area in Telangana Our region receives rains from June to October. It is sufficient only for commercial crops. Later we depend on canals or borewells. Because in Rabi season, they are not enough rains to grow crops.
How can we minimise the damage done by floods and cyclones?
- Floods and cyclones are the regular calamities in our state and ours is no excuse for it.
- Bunds are constructed along the course of the river so that flood water does not enter the village or town.
- Irrigation canals and check dams are constructed to control and regulate the flow of water.
II. Reading the Text (given), Understanding and Interpretation
Write about the different types of crops grown in Penamakuru.
- Food crops: Paddy is extensively cultivated all over the coastal plains especially in Krishna District. The nursery for the paddy monsoon crop called salva is sown and transplanted in the months of June/July. From the month of December they sow the winter crop called dalvAnswer:
- Cash crops: The villagers cultivate turmeric, sugarcane, etc., for sale in the market and are not consumed in the village.
- Vegetables : In the low lying lands if water is not sufficient for a second crop of paddy they cultivate vegetables. Usually they cultivate brinjal, lady’s finger, dondakai, ridge gourd and cabbage.
- Fruits : On the bank of river Krishna and upland areas of Penamakuru we can see several fruit bearing trees and orchards like guava, sapota, papaya
Mention the animals reared in Penamakuru.
All lands in the village are cultivated and there is not much land for grazing cattle. Hence only a few bullocks, cows, buffaloes and sheep are reared for working on the fields and other purposes. The village has a fully mechanised poultry farm. There are about 80,000 hens in this poultry laying about 50,000 eggs each day.
How are the road transport and markets at Penamakuru?
The road network in this region is well developed providing connectivity to many towns and cities. This helps in marketing of the produce. The farmers of this village sell sugarcane to nearby sugar factory which is located at Vuyyuru. The vegetables and bananas are supplied to ‘Raithu Bazar’ which is in Vuyyuru and VijayawadAnswer: The paddy is sold in the fields itself through brokers.
Can you think why the floods can be both destructive and productive?
I think they are more destructive and less productive.
1. Losses due to floods :
a) Low lying areas are inundated by floods.
b) Agricultural lands and crops are damaged.
c) Villages, towns may be drowned.
d) Roads, and railways, power and telephone lines will be interrupted and heavy losses of wealth and human lives are caused.
2. Gains due to floods :
a) Flood water flow should be regulated and controlled by constructing check dams.
b) Several dams are constructed to store the water and useful for irrigation and power supply.
III. Information Skills
Read the passage and answer the following questions.
There are about 750 families in Penamakuru. Ten of them have 10 acres of land or above. Approximately 150 families have land below 5 acres and the rest have no land. They either take land on lease from the the landlords farmers or work as labourers on their farms.
1) How many families are there in Penamakuru ?
There are about 750 families in Penamakuru.
2) How many families have land below five acres ?
Approximately 150 families have land below five acres.
3) Do all the families have land ?
No, they either lease in the land in the landed farmers or work as labourers on their farms.
4) Who work as labourers on their forms ?
The people who are landless work as labourers on their farmers.
5) How many families have 10 acres of land or above ?
10 families have 10 acres of land or above.
IV. Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning
Write few lines about Bandar canal.
Bandar canal: After travelling about 3 kms from Vuyyuru. the Bandar canal should be crossed to reach Penamakuru. Bandar canal takes off from Krishna river at Prakasam Barrage in VijayawadAnswer: It flows from the North West of the village to the South East direction. Water of this canal is taken to the fields through small field channels. Penamakuru village is situated between the Krishna river and the Bandar canal.
Find out from your elders about the major floods in the past and what happened during those times.
Floods are caused by cyclones which bring heavy rains from the sea along with strong winds which uproot trees and cottages. During the worst floods of 1997, 2006 or 2009 our low lying areas got inundated, agricultural lands and crops got damaged. Villages, towns, roads, railways, power supply, telephone lines got destroyed. The affected areas incurred a huge loss of life and property due to the floods.
Write about the mechanised poultry farm in Penamakuru.
The village has fully mechanised poultry farm. Water is supplied through nipples and food is supplied by the conveyers. There are about 80,000 hens in this poultry laying about 50,000 eggs each day. These eggs are sent to Vijayawada and other states like Assom and Bihar through agents. The chicken dropping is sold as fish feed to farmers in nearby areAnswer:
VI. Appreciation and Sensitivity
To what extent do you think the changing crops is beneficial to the farmers?
In olden days, the farmers of Penamakuru cultivated red gram, green gram and millets on the uplands. These did not require much water. Nowadays, there crops have been replaced with vegetables and sugarcane which require irrigation. There is a shift from growing food grains like millets, paddy and pulses to cash crops like sugarcane, vegetables, fruits and turmeric. This is made possible by the growth of irrigation. The farmers get benefits by them like availability of loans to purchase inputs like seeds and fertilizers. They get more money than food crops.
TS 6th Class Social 3rd Lesson Notes – 3B Penamakuru – A Village in the Krishna Delta
- Hills : A naturally raised area of land, not as high or craggy as a mountain.
- Plateau : Plateaus are flat topped table land with steep slopes on one side or more sides.
- Plain : Plains are large stretches of flat land, not higherthan 200 mts from mean sea level.
- Coast : The land beside or near to the sea or ocean.
- Cyclone : A violent tropical storm in which strong winds move in a circle.
- Flood : A large amount of water covering an area that is usually dry.
- Orchards : A piece of land normally separated from the surrounding area, in which fruit trees are grown.