Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 20 Post – War World and India to understand and remember the concept easily.
AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 20 Post – War World and India
→ Three of the most important processes that took place after the Second World War are the establishment of the United Nations, the Cold War, and Decolonisation.
→ At the time of its establishment UN had a membership of 54 countries and today (2014) there are 193 countries.
→ It was started with twin objectives of ensuring lasting peace and human development.
→ It works through six different organs.
→ Security Council, an organ of the UN, has 5 permanent membership countries with Veto (made invalid or rejected) power.
→ For more than fifty years after World War II, Cold War was fought between the USA and the USSR.
→ The destruction was of third world countries, which fought under the influence of the two blocks.
→ The superpowers formed alliances and expanded their influence to gain access to resources like oil and minerals.
→ Both the USSR and the USA spent huge amounts of money to conduct research into weapons and space. ,
→ People of all countries lived in constant fear of war.
→ The Bandung conference represented by 29 nations from Africa and Asia paved the way for the Non-Aligned Movement.
→ By 2012, its membership is 120 countries with 17 Observers.
→ West Asian or the Middle East conflicts have the bone of contention Israel, a newly formed Jews state.
→ The reforms introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in Russia, ‘the Glasnost’ and ‘Perestroika’ resulted in disbanding of USSR in 1991.
→ India made a Panchsheel agreement with China in 1954 but the latter made a surprise attack on India in 1962.
→ Later full diplomatic relations were restored only in 1976.
→ The bone of contention for Indo-Pak relations is Kashmir.
→ Pakistan waged many wars with India over Kashmir.
→ India made a 25-year peace treaty with Bangladesh in 1972, after its liberation.
→ Since times immemorial, India and Sri Lanka have had cultural, ethnic, and economic relations.
→ Military alliances: Formation of groups in connection with armed forces
→ Proxy war: The USA and the USSR are not fighting directly, they support two opposing sides in the countries of their sphere of influence and there is a physical war
→ Arms race: Countries spending huge amounts of money to conduct research into weapons and building arsenals of devastating arms.
→ Unipolar: The world led by one superpower In the military, economic supremacy, and ideology.
→ Bipolar: The world is divided between two superpowers for military, economic supremacies, and Ideological conflict.
→ Decolonization: Granting of independence to a colony = freeing It from colonial states
→ Peace: A situation or a period of time in which there is no war or violence in a country, area, or in the world.
→ Veto: Make invalid or reject = A provision given to five permanent members of the security council in UNO (China, France, the UK, the USSR, and the USA) through which any decision taken by the council can be vetoed by the Intervention of even any one of these countries.
→ Ethnic conflict: The tight of people of a particular race with another race and to have control over it.
→ Panchsheel: FIve principles of peaceful coexistence, India made an agreement with Panchsheel with China in 1954. Principles are like mutual non-aggression, equality, and mutual benefit, mutual non-Interference in each- others’ internal affairs, etc.
→ Great Depression: A great decline in trade and general prosperity worldwide (1929-39)
→ Cold War: The intense tension between the US and the USSR (during 1945-1991) of propaganda and words, in absence of real fighting.
→ Dictatorship: The rule which is not effectively restricted by a constitution, laws and recognized opposition, etc.
→ Imperialism: The practice of extending a state’s rule over other territories, colonizing them.
→ Capitalism: Economic system based on private ownership of means of production, distribution, and exchange and operated for profits.
→ Communism: Belief that private ownership of land, factories, railways, banks, etc. should be replaced by public ownership.
→ Autonomy: The freedom for a country to govern itself independently.
→ Moderation: The quality of being moderate (reasonable) and not being extreme.
→ Third world: The countries emerging from colonial.
→ DomInation: Rest of the world from 2 blocks, USA and USSR.
→ Strategic alliances: Formation of groups In connection with getting an advantage In war or other military situations.
→ Flashpoints: Situations where violence starts and cannot be controlled.
→ Nationalism: The desire by a group of people who share the same race, culture, language, etc. to form an independent country.
→ Secularism: The belief that religion shall not be involved in administration (or) government’s non-interference in religion.