## AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 8 People and Migration

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 8 People and Migration to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 8 People and Migration

→ Thousands of people move to urban locations for education, employment and better opportunities.

→ Over time people go to new places, develop relationships with new people, understand and live in a diversified culture.

→ For identifying a person as a migrant, two criteria – birthplace and last usual place of residence are used by the census.

→ In India, according to Census 2001, about 307 million people have been reported as migrants.

→ Out of the 84.2% migrated from one part of the state to another. Around 13% migrated from one state to another.

→ During the last decade (2001 – 2011), people moved from states such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Uttarakhand and Tamil Nadu to states such as Delhi, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Karnataka.

→ People migrate from rural areas mainly due to insufficient employment opportunities and inadequate income.

→ Most urban migrants have to work as labourers and find employment in the unorganised sector.

→ Towns also appear to offer greater freedom and somewhat less discrimination based on caste and gender.

→ Remittances – money sent by migrants from their destination – are an important means of supplementing, or generating additional incomes for the rural family.

→ Urban migrants use different job searching mechanisms depending upon their skills and educational qualifications.

→ According to national surveys (census), every fourth person in India is a migrant.

→ Some of the migrations may not be captured by census data because the period of stay is often less than six months.

→ A study estimates that about 6,50,000 labourers migrate from central to western Maharashtra for sugarcane cutting each year.

→ A large section of rural workers migrates for a short duration and particularly due to distress caused in rural areas.

→ They are mainly agricultural labourers or marginal farmers in their place of origin and mostly belong to low-income households, Dalits and Adivasis.

→ The National Commission of Rural Labour in its report in the 1990s found that uneven development and regional disparity triggered and accelerated seasonal migration.

→ When people migrate they cannot get food from fair price shops, they lack health and family care, no creche facilities and many children become dropouts.

→ One-third of the world’s 200 million international migrants moved from one developing country to another.

→ International migration from India is of two types.

1. Migration of people with technical skills and professional expertise.
2. Migration of unskilled and semi-skilled workers.

→ The Emigration Act, 1983 is the Indian law governing migration and employment of Indians abroad.

→ It also lays out conditions to safeguard the interests of workers emigrating for employment.

→ Migration: The movement of a large number of people from one place to another

→ Immigration: The process of coming to live permanently in a country that is not your own

→ Emigration: Leaving your own country to go and live permanently in another country

→ Seasonal: Relating to or happening during a particular period in the year

→ Border: The line that divides two countries

→ Boundary: A real or imagined tiñe that makes the limits of a country

→ Criteria: Plural of criterion

→ Criterion: A standard or principle based on which decision is made

→ Birthplace: Place where the person was born

→ Last usual place of residence: A place where the person had stayed continuously for a period of six months or more

→ Unorganised sector: Unorganised sector refers to the household used production activities, small and tiny sectors of the industry like handicrafts, handlooms, beedi making, etc.

→ Organised Sector: Large scale industries and agricultural units with a defined pattern of production, distribution and employment are referred to as an organised sector, e.g: textiles, automobiles, etc.

→ Service activities: Transport and communication, financial institutions, banking and insuranc&and public administration activities

→ Remittances: Money sent by migrants from their destination

→ Urban migrants: The peopÍe who are migrated to urban areas (usually from rural areas but sometimes from towns also)

→ Seasonal migrants: The people who are migrated temporarily (for less than 6 months)

→Kopi: A small conical hut made of bamboo mat and poles
→ Gadi centre: The settlement with 50 – 100 kopis

→ Tyre centre: The settlement with 200 – 250 kopis

→ Agricultural labourers: The labourers who work in agriculture and allied activities (unskilled and landless)

→ Marginal farmers: The farmers who own land less than or equal to 2.5 acres

## AP Board 10th Class Physical Science Notes Chapter 1 Heat

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Physical Science Notes Chapter 1 Heat to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Physical Science Notes Chapter 1 Heat

→ Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness.

→ When two bodies attain the same degree of hotness or coldness then they are said to be in thermal equilibrium.

→ If two different systems, A and B, (thermal contact) are in thermal equilibrium individually with another system C, then the systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

→ Heat is a form of energy in transit that is transferred from the body at a higher temperature to the body at a lower temperature.

→ 1 cal = 4.18 J

→ S.l. unit of temperature is Kelvin (K).

→ 0° C = 273 K

→ Temperature in Kelvin = 273 + Temperature in Celsius.

→ Temperature measured on the Kelvin scale is called Absolute Temperature.

→ The bodies possess kinetic energy when they are in motion.

→ The average kinetic energy of the molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

→ The rise in temperature depends on the nature of the material.

→ The specific heat of a material is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of material by a unit.

→ The molecules of the system have different energies between molecules. The total energy of the system is called the internal energy of the system.

→ The heat is needed to raise the temperature of a certain mass of the substance to a certain level by using the equation Q= mSΔT, where ‘S’ is called the specific heat of the substance.

→ C.G.S. unit of specific heat is cal/g-°C.

→ S.l. unit of specific heat is J/kg – K.

→ 1 cal/g-°C = 4.186 x 103 J/Kg – K.

→ The oceans behave like heat storehouses of earth.

→ Watermelon brought out from the refrigerator retains its coolness for a longer time than any other fruit because of its large percentage of water.

→ The samosa seems to be cool outside but it is hot when we eat it because the curry inside the samosa contains ingredients with higher specific heat.

→ Net heat lost = Net heat gain.
This is known as the principle of the method of mixtures.

→ The specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of the substance by one unit.
S = $$\frac{\mathrm{a}}{\mathrm{m} \Delta \mathrm{T}}$$

→ Specific heat of solid pieces given by equation Ss = $$\frac{\left[m_{1} S_{c}+\left(m_{2}-m_{1}\right) S_{w}\right]\left(T_{3}-T_{1}\right)}{\left(m_{3}-m_{1}\right)\left(T_{2}-T_{3}\right)}$$

→ The process of escaping molecules from the surface of a liquid at any temperature is called evaporation. ’

→ Evaporation is a surface phenomenon and is a cooling process.

→ The rate of evaporation of a liquid depends on its surface area temperature and the amount of vapor already present in the surrounding air.

→ The phase change from gas to liquid at the surface of the liquid is called condensation.

→ The amount of water vapor present in the air is called humidity.

→ Boiling is a process in which the liquid phase changes to the gaseous phase at a constant temperature at a given pressure.

→ The boiling point of water is 100° C or 373 K.

→ Heat energy is used to change the state of water from liquid to vapor (gas). This is called the latent heat of vaporization.

→ Latent heat of vapourization (L) = $$\frac{\mathrm{Q}}{\mathrm{m}}$$
Units in C.G.S – cal/gm.
Units in S.l. – J/kg.

→ The latent heat of vaporization of water is 540 cal/gm.

→ The process of converting a solid into a liquid is called melting.

→ The heat energy required to convert 1 gm of solid completely into liquid at a constant temperature is called the latent heat of fusion.

→ Latent heat of fusion (L) = $$\frac{\mathrm{Q}}{\mathrm{m}}$$
C.G.S units – cal/gm.
S.l. units – J/kg.

→ Latent heat of fusion of ice is 80 cal/gm.

→ The process in which the substance in the liquid phase changes to the solid phase by losing the same energy from it is called freezing.

→ Water expands on freezing.

→ Condensation is the reverse process of evaporation.

→ Temperature is a measure of thermal equilibrium.

→ Temperature: The degree of hotness or coldness is called temperature.
(OR)
It is a measure of the hotness or coldness of a body.

→ Heat: Heat is a form of energy. It is transferred from a hot body to a cold body.
(OR)
Heat is transferred from the body at a higher temperature to a lower temperature.

→ Thermal equilibrium: Two bodies having the same degree of hotness or coldness.
(OR)
If the temperature of the various parts of two bodies is the same and equal to the surroundings, it Is said that the two bodies are in thermal equilibrium.
(OR)
In between two bodies no net transfer of heat when they are in contact.

→ Specific heat The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of the substance by one degree centigrade.

→ Evaporation: The process of escaping molecules from the surface of a liquid at any temperature.
(OR)
It is the conversion of a substance from liquid to vapor (gas).

→ Condensation: Condensation is defined as the phase change from gas to liquid at the surface of the liquid.

→ Humidity: The amount of water vapor present in the air.

→ Dew: The water droplets condensed on the surface are known as dew.

→ Fog: Thick mist formed due to condensation of vapor on the dust particles.

→ Boiling: Boiling is the process in which the liquid phase changes to the gaseous phase at a constant temperature.

→ Latent heat of vaporization: The amount of heat required to convert one gram of liquid into vapor at a constant temperature.

→ Melting: The process of converting solid into liquid.

→ Freezing: The process in which a substance in the liquid phase changes to the solid phase by losing some energy.

→ The temperature in Kelvin: 273 + Temperature in Celsius.

→ Internal energy: The energy possessed by the system by virtue of its molecular motion and molecular configuration.

→ Principle of the method of mixtures: Net heat lost by the hot bodies is equal to net heat gained by the cold bodies.
Net heat lost = Net heat gain

→ Boiling point: Thetemperatureatwhich liquid undergoes boiling.

→ Latent heat of fusion: The heat energy required to convert 1 gm of solid completely into liquid at a constant temperature.

→ Celsius temperature scale: The temperature scale which has a lower limit of 0° C and a higher limit of 100° C and is divided into 100 parts.

→ Kelvin scale: A temperature scale that has a lower fixed point 273.15 K and an upper fixed point of 373.15 K is called the Kelvin scale.

→ Calorie: It is equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1° C.
1 cal =4.18J

→ Joule: Theunitofenergyofwork. 1 joule of work is done when a force of 1 Newton moves through 1 meter.

→ Kinetic energy: The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion.
KE = $$\frac{1}{2}$$mv2 or $$\frac{3}{2}$$RT

→ Vapour: The gaseous state of a substance is called vapor.

→ Lord Kelvin (1824 – 1907):

• Lord Kelvin of Scotland studied at Cambridge University, was a champion rower, and later became a professor of
natural philosophy at the University of Glasgow.
• Lord Kelvin invented the Kelvin scale in 1848 used on thermometers.
• The Kelvin scale measures the ultimate extremes of hot and cold.
• Kelvin developed the idea of absolute temperature. It is called the second law of thermodynamics and developed the dynamical theory of heat.
• In the 9th century, scientists were researching the possibility of the lowest temperature. Time Kelvin scale uses the same units of Celsius scale but it starts at absolute zero.
• Absolute zero is 0°C which is – 273 K.

→ James Prott Joule (18181 1889):

• Joule was a British physicist, famous for his research into electricity and thermodynamics.
• In 1840, he sent a paper entitled on the Production of Heat by Voltaic Electricity to the prestigious Royal Society in London.
• In 1843 Joule calculated the amount of mechanical work needed to produce an equivalent amount of heat. This quantity was called the mechanical equivalent of heat.
• The principle of energy conservation involved in Joule’s work gave rise to the new scientific discipline known as thermodynamics.
• He died at Sale, Cheshire, England, on October 11, 1889.
• The SI unit for amount of heat is named in Joule’s honor

## AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 12 Sustainable Development with Equity

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 12 Sustainable Development with Equity to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 12 Sustainable Development with Equity

→ The rapid expansion of production and incomes can coexist with malnutrition and lack of education and health for a large proportion of the people, as in India.

→ With a high percentage of the workforce in low-paid employment, an increase in GDP and the enormous variety of goods and services being produced can benefit only select groups.

→ Wide inequalities like a few enjoy world-class living comforts and others deprived of decent living cannot be the basis for a society.

→ The environmental resources have been used up and damaged to an unprecedented extent in the course of economic growth.

→ The potential of an environment to provide naturally existing substances like land, water, minerals, etc. is referred to as an “environment’s source function”.

→ The environment’s ability to absorb and render harmless waste and pollution is “Sink function”.

→ If the water drawn up is more than that is being recharged, then it is obvious that after some time no more groundwater is left.

→ Groundwater overuse is particularly found in Punjab and Western U.P, hard rock plateau areas of central and south India, some coastal areas, and urban settlements.

→ Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

→ Only one percent of the pesticide actually acts on the pest – the rest goes into our system through food, water, and the environment.

→ Modern industrial development and agricultural development are intensive in the use of natural resources including energy, depletion of resources, and pollution of the environment is to be expected.

→ Organic farmers forego the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. c& Sikkim is the first state in India that is planning to shift completely to organic farming by 2015.

→ Uttarakhand too is following the same path of being 100%

→ From development centered on the growth of goods and services, the goal has to shift towards sustainable development with equity.

→ Sustainable development: That meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

→ Environment: The surroundings of us on the earth which show some effect on us.

→ Source: The place something comes from or starts at, or cause of ‘something.

→ People’s rights: The right entitled to the people by the constitution.

→ Equity: Th quality of being fair or Impartial, fairness.

→ Sink: An environment’s ability to absorb and render harmless waste and pollution.

→ Gross Domestic Product: The total money value of all the goods and services produced In the country during a year which exclude the money from abroad

→ Per capita income: The National Income of a country d1vI(d by Its population gives per capita income.

→ Human Development Index: A composite Index based on life expœtary, general health level, literacy rate, and education sanitation facilities besides per capita income.

→ Social indicators: The Indicators which show some effect on society either with change In Income or any other changes.

→ Unorganized sector: Refers to household-based production activities and small and tiny seétors of industry like handicrafts, handlooms, etc.

→ Organized sector: Refers to large-scale Industrial and agr1cultiral units with a defined pattern of production and employment.

→ Economic development: SustaIned economic growth with Institutional changes refer to economic development.

→ Economic growth ¡it refers to an Increase In the production of goods and services arid their value, considerably, over a year.

→ Natural resources: The resources that are naturally existing substances like land, water, minerals, ores, etc,

→ Environment’s source: The potential of an environment to provide the function natural resources like land, water, minerals, ores, products from trees and animals, etc.

→ Carrying capacity of the environment: The capacity of the environment to support economic production and consumption In the future.

→ Recharge (of water): The water bu to go dàwflto thè ground for It to be lifted up.

→ Unsafe drinking water: The water that Is contaminated from chemical and industrial waste.

→ Diversity: The existence of a large number of different kinds of animals and plants.

→ Multiple cropping: Raising of more than one crop simultaneously in the same piece of land.

→ Displacement: The act of displacing the (tribal) people in the areas which are believed to be submerged with the construction of the dam

→ Traditional knowledge: The stock of knowledge has been built and enriched over generations.

→ Greenhouse gases: The gases like CO2 that cause the problem of a gradual rise in the temperature of the earth’s surface.

→ Organic farming: The practice of cultivation without using chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

→ Crop rotation: The act óf changing the crop that is grown on an area of land in order to protect the soil.

## AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Notes Chapter 12 Stars and the Solar System

Students can go through AP State Board 8th Class Physical Science Notes Chapter 12 Stars and the Solar System to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 8th Class Physical Science Notes Chapter 12 Stars and the Solar System

→ The shortest shadow cast by a vertical object on the ground always falls in the north-south direction.

→ The shortest shadow of an object occurs at local noon.

→ The time duration for the appearance of the sun and moon after the completion of a cycle is different.

→ Changes in the appearance of the moon are called phases of the moon.

→ On the new moon day, the sun and moon are on the same side of the earth.

→ On the full moon day, the sun and moon are on either side of the earth.

→ Moon has no atmosphere as we have on the earth.

→ The pole star is situated in the direction of the earth’s axis and hence it appears as not moving.

→ There are eight planets in our solar system.

→ Among the eight planets of the solar system, the earth is the only planet that supports life.

→ A large number of objects that revolve around the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter are asteroids.

→ The length of the tail of the comet grows in size as it approaches the sun.

→ A meteor is usually a small object that occasionally enters the earth’s atmosphere.

→ A body that reaches the earth is called a meteorite.

→ Aryabhatta was the first Indian artificial satellite.

→ Forecasting weather, transmitting television and radio signals, telecommunication, remote sensing are the practical applications of artificial satellites.

→ Celestial bodies: Objects present ¡n sky or outer space.

→ Local noon: The time when the shortest shadow occurs is called the local noontime at that place.

→ Sundial: A clock based on shadows of an object due to sunlight.

→ Dakshinoyanam: When the sun looks like traveling south of the sky, it ¡s called the Dakshinayanam.

→ Uttarayanam: When the sun looks like traveling towards the north of the sky is called the Uttarayanam.

→ Phases of the: The shape of the moon changes night after night. These moon changes in its appearance are called the phases of the moon.

→ Constellations: Group of stars having some shapes of animals or human beings is called constellations.

→ Galaxy: A group of stars that contain millions of stars is called galaxies.

→ Pole star: The star in the sky which appears fixed at one point.

→ Solar system: The sun and the celestial bodies which revolve around it form the solar system.

→ Planets: The planets look like stars but they do riot have the light of their own.

→ Satellites: The bodies revolving:.around around patients are called s9tllites.

→ Artificial satellites: Man-made satellites revolving around the earth are called artificial satellites

→ Asteroids: A large number of objects that revolve around the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter ore asteroids

→ Comets: The celestial objects which revolve around the sun ¡n highly elliptical orbits.

→ Meteors: Meteors are usually small objects that occasionally enter the earth s atmosphere.

→ Meteorite: A body that reaches the earth is called a meteorite.

→ Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630):

• Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
• A key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous of planetary motion.
• His laws support the Heliocentric theory.

## AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 16 National Movement in India–Partition & Independence

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 16 National Movement in India–Partition & Independence to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 16 National Movement in India–Partition & Independence

→ The British Government has shown its double standards in the expectation that India should support them in fighting the Fascists but it is not giving India full freedom.

→ Congress’s demand for the immediate national government was put down by the British on the pretext that it did not represent all Indians, like Muslims.

→ The Muslim League was formed in 1906.

→ In 1909 separated constituencies are reserved for Muslims as per the demand of the Muslim League.

→ PAKISTAN (from Punjab, Afghan, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan) was coined by Choudhry Rehmat Ali in the 1930s.

→ From 1940 to 1946, the League was able to convince the Muslim masses of the benefits and need for a separate nation.

→ In the spring of 1942, Cripps Mission came to India to seek help in fighting Japan, but not ready to appoint an Indian as the Defence Member of the Executive Council.

→ Mahatma Gandhi launched the ‘Quit India’ movement in August 1942.

→ Subhash Chandra Bose wished to fight against the British by joining Japan and Germany to get independence soon.

→ He founded Indian National Army with the prisoners of war in Japan (who belonged to Indian origin) and fought with the British for 3 years.

→ In 1946 the soldiers of INA were imprisoned and the British decided to punish them after trials.

→ These trials national consciousness gained prominence over Hindu-Muslim identity and separate politics.

→ In 1946, the guards of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay harbor went on a hunger strike which spread entire India.

→ Cabinet Mission came in 1946 to discuss the transfer of power to India but wanted to keep India united.

→ Muslim League observed ‘Direct Action Day on 16 August 1946 to win Pakistan.

→ The formal transfer of power from the British Govt to Pakistan would be done on 14th and to India, it would be done on the 15th of August, 1947.

→ Around 1.5 crore people, both Hindus, and Muslims, were displaced at the time of partition, and between 2 to 5 lakhs were killed.

→ Father of the Nation fell to 3 bullets in the evening of 30 Jan 1948, Nathuram Godse was the assassin.

→ Integration of around 550 Princely states was the responsibility of Sardar Patel.

→ All Princely states except Hyderabad, Junagadh, and Kashmir joined India before Independence, and these three within 2 years after them.

→ Dominion status: The status of a country of the British Common-wealth that had its own government but not a sovereign nation.

→ Divide and rule: The policy followed by the British to divide the unified Hindu-Muslims and weaken the national movement.

→ Separate electorate: Separate electorate ¡s the type of ElectÍon in which minorities select their own representatives separately.

→ Province: One of the areas that some countries are divided into, with its own local government.

→ Provincial: The assemblies that were elected by voters in British India assemblies in provinces independently.

→ British India: The part of India that was directly ruled by the British.

→ Native India: The part of India that was ruled by the Indian princes.

→ Princely states: The regions in Native India that were ruled by the Indian princes.

→ Central Assembly: The assembly that was elected by the voters of British India, all provinces put together.

→ Prime Minister: The chief of the provincial assembly (now as Chief Minister)

→ Sovereign nations: The nations which can take their internal and external affairs decisions, on their own.

→ British common: The group of countries once ruled by the British as an Imperial wealth country.

→ IndivIdual: Satyagrahi comes to a public place individually and makes a satyagraha speech against the British attitude and gets arrested.

→ Minority: A small group within a country that is different, because of race, religion, language, etc.

→ Cripps Mission: Stafford Cripps came to India in the spring of 1942, to get Indian soldiers to fight against Japan, but England was not ready to allow India to form National Government.

→ Cabinet Mission: Pethick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps, A.V. Alexander came to India in 1946 in to negotiate on the transfer of power as India remains united.

→ Instrument of Accession: Princely States, after independence needed to sign this agreement to join India.

→ Privy-purse: The allowances paid to the Ìulers of princely states after signing the Instrument of Accession to meet their personal expenses.

→ Colonialism: A developed country making the underdeveloped countries as colonies and getting raw materials at lower prices and selling finished goods at higher prices, thereby exploiting them.

## AP Board 9th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 1 Our Earth

Students can go through AP State Board 9th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 1 Our Earth to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 9th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 1 Our Earth

→ We human beings arrived on earth about one lakh years ago.

→ More than any other animal-human beings have been trying to make the Earth a better _ place to live in.

→ Reckless exploitation of the Earth by human beings resulted in environmental crises like global warming and poisoning of our soils, water, and air.

→ Initially, people thought that the Earth was firm and stationary and all others went around it

→ About five hundred years ago, scientists came up with a new understanding – that the Earth is not the middle of the solar system, that it is actually moved around the Sun.

→ Stars are actually part of galaxies and there are millions of galaxies in the universe.

→ The universe itself came into existence 13.7 billion years ago with a Big Bang.

→ The Earth rotates on its own axis and goes around the Sun in an orbit that is nearly circular.

→ Earth travels around the Sun at a speed of1,07,200 kilometers per hour.

→ The Earth takes 365 1/4 days to complete one revolution.

→ The Earth began to form around four and a half billion years ago and has reached its present form through several phases.

→ The Earth is made up of three main layers-crust, mantle, and core.

→ The massive supercontinent Pangaea, which existed 220 million years ago and then breaking apart into several large sections such as Laurentia and Gondwana.

→ The continents took millions of years to reach their present shape and positions on the globe.

→ We can find the latitudinal and longitudinal information of a place in a well-produced atlas or online using Google Earth.

→ With the help of the grid – a network of latitudes and longitudes we can locate places on the globe and learn much about them.

→ While latitudes are horizontal circles, the longitudes are semi-circles connecting the north pole and the south pole.

→ There are 180 latitudes and 360 longitudes.

→ The standard time of a country is the time of the meridian that passes through the center of that country.

→ The time difference between the eastern and western extremes of the country is two hours.

→ Big Bang: The single large explosion that created the universe.

→ Grid: A pattern of squares on a map that is formed of a bi-section of two latitudes and longitudes.

→ Gondwana: The break-up part of the Pangaea that consists of present South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Arabia, Malaysia, East-Indies, Australia, and Antarctica.

→ Prime meridian: 0° longitudes is called Prime Meridian or Greenwich Meridian. It passes through Greenwich, near London.

→ Time zones: Any of the 24 regions of the globe throughout which the same standard time is used.

→ Standard time: A uniform time for places in approximately the same longitude.

→ Laurentia: The break-up part of the Pangaea that consists of present NorthEnvironmental crises: Global warming and poisoning of our soils, water, and air are called environmental crises. They are caused by the reckless exploitation of the earth by humans.

→ Global warming: Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans.

→ Galaxy: Galaxies are composed of stars, dust, and dark matter all held together by gravity.

→ Universe: The totality of matter, energy, and space including the solar system, the galaxies, and continents of the space between the galaxies.

→ Solar system: The solar system is made up of all the planets that orbit the sun. In addition to planets, the solar system also consists of moons, comets, asteroids, minor planets, and dust and gas.

→ Crust: The outer layer of the earth.

→ Mantle: The layer under the crust of the earth is called the mantle.

→ Core: The third and the thickest Iayr of the earth.

→ Pangaea: The massive supercontinent that existed 220 million years ago and broke apart into several large sections – continents. (Or) America, Greenland, and all of Eurasia North of the Indian subcontinent. Pangaea is a hypothetical continent from which present continents originated by drift.

→ Tethys sea: A long shallow inland sea that separated the blocks – Laurentia and Gondwana land.

→ Latitudes: The horizontal circles that go around the earth.

→ Longitudes: The semi-circles that connect the north and south poles.

→ The crust forms only 1%of the volume of the earth, 16% consists of the mantle and 83% makes the core.

→ The thickness of the crust is just about the thickness of the shell of an egg if we assume that the size of the earth is equal to the size of an egg

→ Time and travel: You know that the earth rotates on its axis. And longitudes are imaginary lines we have made. Hence there is a difference in the time as you travel from east to west or west to east. When you are traveling West to East you gain a time of 4 minutes as you cross every longitude. But if you are traveling from East to West you lose 4 minutes as you cross every longitude. These are referred to as EGA and WLS (EGA – East Gain Add, WLS – West Lost Subtract).

→ To avoid confusion of time from place to place 82° 30’ Eastern longitude is taken as standard Meridian of India and serves as the Indian Standard Time (IST). The exact difference between Greenwich and IST is 56 hours.

## AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 15 National Liberation Movements in the Colonies

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 15 National Liberation Movements in the Colonies to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 15 National Liberation Movements in the Colonies

→ In this chapter, we will read about the plight of the colonies and how they began to fight against the colonial domination of the European powers.

→ Western colonial powers had carved out their spheres of influence in different parts of China.

→ In 1911 a republic was established in China under Sun-Yat-Sen, who is regarded as the founder of modern China.

→ He prepared a program of ‘nationalism – democracy – socialism’ to develop China.

→ But Sun could not consolidate itself.

→ On 4th May 1919, a demonstration was held in Beijing to protest against the decisions of the Versailles peace conference.

→ After this Guomindang and the Chinese Communist Party tried to bring stability to China.

→ Guomindang identified ‘four great needs’ as clothing, food, housing, and transportation.

→ After the death of Sun, Chiang Kai-shek emerged as the leader who stood for unified behavior.

→ Chiang was a conservative and he encouraged women to develop virtues of chastity, appearance, speech, and work.

→ Mao Zedong emerged as a major CCP leader by basing his revolutionary program on the peasantry.

→ He conducted ‘Long March’ of over 6,000 miles.

→ He ended warlordism and carried out land reforms and fought foreign imperialism.

→ The Peoples Republic of China government was established in 1949 on the principles of the ‘New Democracy’.

→ The CCP conducted hectic land reforms successfully.

→ In mid 19th century, Vietnam came under the direct rule of the French who made the emperor here a puppet.

→ Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third-largest exporter of rice in the world.

→ French colonizers tried to give education through which they believed Vietnamese civilize.

→ Educated youth organized themselves and fought to drive away foreign forces like French and Japanese.

→ ‘Vietminh’ under ‘Ho Chi Minh fought against the French for 8 years and defeated them

→ In the peace agreement, Vietnam was divided into North and South Vietnam.

→ North Vietnam headed by Ho Chi Minh, confiscated the land of the landlords and distributed it among the landless.

→ The US worried about communists gaining power in Vietnam and their attempt to verify it.

→ The US war with Vietnam was long-drawn and got criticism even inside the US, which forced it to make peace.

→ Finally, Vietnam was unified on 30 April 1975.

→ In Western Africa, Nigeria was the colony of the British.

→ It encouraged conflict and competition between the three major tribal groups and was able to ‘divide and rule’.

→ Herbert Macaulay founded the first Nigerian political party won consecutive elections.

→ The Nigerian Youth Movement was founded by Nnamdi Azikiwe.

→ Macaulay and Azikiwe together worked for the independence of Nigeria in 1963.

→ Unfortunately, Nigeria slipped into Civil war and was under military dictatorship till 1999.

→ Nigerians elected a democratic government in 1999.

→ Oil was discovered in the 1950s in the Niger Delta and many MNCs extracted oil and shared profits with military leaders.

→ Oil spillage from wells has a major impact on the ecosystem.

→ In 1990 an eminent human rights activist and environmentalist Ken Saro Wiwa was executed.

→ Nigeria is still making efforts to weld together as a nation, work out a stable democratic system and gain control over its material resources.

→ Land reforms: Making attempts to see that the land is not concentrated but distributed more equitably

→ Landlordism: Large landlords took over the lands of small peasants and made them work as tenant farmers

→ New Democracy: An alliance of all social classes opposed to land4ordlsm and Imperialism

→ Forced labor: DurIng colonial period the peasants were forced to do forced labor on the personal land of the landlords

→ Chemical arms: Weapons that use poisonous gases and chemicals to kill and injure people

→ Weak: A democracy where the practice of democratic principles was not made possible

→ Pan-Africanism: Idea which promotes the unity of all African peoples irrespective of country or tribe

→ Warlords: The leaders of military groups that fight against other groups within a. country regional military power

→ May Fourth Movement: On 14th May 1919 an angry demonstration was held in Beijing to protest against the decisions of the Versailles peace conference

→ Foot-binding: A cruel practice of not allowing women to have fully grown feet

→ Four great needs: Clothing, food, housing, and transport

→ Long March: In 1934 Mao Zedong conducted this Historic t1g March with his Red Army a distance of 10,000 km one year

→ Military Garrisons: Groups of soldiers living in a town or fort to defend It

→ Colons: French citizens living In Vietnam

→ Civilising Mission: The French colonizers thought education to Vietnamese was one way to civilize them

→ Napalm bombs: ‘A deadly bomb which caused intense damage to humans

→ Agent Orange: A defoliant plant killer which destroyed plants arid tres and made the land barren for a long time

→ Bonded labor: À person who Is legally owned by another person and is forced to work for him without paying anything

## AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 17 The Making of Independent India’s Constitution

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 17 The Making of Independent India’s Constitution to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 17 The Making of Independent India’s Constitution

→ The constitution outlines the structure and powers of the government and its organs like executive, legislature, judiciary, etc.

→ It indicates the nature of the future society which has to be built by the joint efforts of the state and the society.

→ The Constitution of India was prepared and adopted by the Constituent Assembly,

→ The Provincial Assemblies indirectly elected members and the Princely States nominated members to Constituent Assembly.

→ A Drafting Committee was set up under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and its task was to prepare the final draft taking into account all viewpoints.

→ The Draft Constitution is a formidable document containing 895 Articles and 8 Schedules (In the text-only 315 Articles were given). (At present Indian Constitution contains 448 Articles and 12 Schedules.)

→ We have Parliamentary Democracy in our country.

→ The USA has Presidential Democracy in their country.

→ Our President can do nothing contrary to the advice of the Council of Ministers nor can he do anything without their advice,

→ We have a federal system with single citizenship, a single integrated judiciary, and a common All India Civil Service.

→ Whereas the USA has a federal system with dual citizenship, dual judiciary, and duality of services.

→ Our Constitution supported decentralization under article 40 to set up and expand Gram panchayats or local self-governance.

→ Our Constitution abolished untouchability in any form under article 17.

→ Amending the articles can be initiated only by the Parliament.

→ Some amendments should get 2/3rd members’ approval in both the houses of Parliament – Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

→ Some articles may be amended only with acceptance from the state legislatures as well.

→ In the Keshavanada Bharati case, it was argued that certain provisions in the Indian Constitution cannot be changed under any circumstances like Fundamental Rights.

→ Drafting Committee: A committee appointed by the Constituent Assembly for preparing the first draft of the Constitution.

→ Constituent: An assembly whose purpose is to frame a Constitution for the Assembly country

→ Preamble: Introduction which embodies the basic principles on which Constitution is based.

→ Concurrent list: A list of 47 items given in part XI of the Constitution of India, concerned with the relation between the Union and States. This part is divided between legislative and administrative powers.

→ Unitary principles A strong Centre, a single Constitution, flexibility of the Constitution, single citizenship, inequality of representation in the upper house, etc.

→ Federal principles: Rigiil and written Constitution, decentralization of powers, power to alter the boundaries.

→ Citizenship The state of being vested with the rights, privileges, and duties of a citizen.

→ Presidential system: A presidential system is a republic system of government where a head of government is also head of state.

→ Parliamentary system: A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to the legislature, the executive.

→ Amendment: A procedure is laid down in the Constitution itself by which changes can be brought about. This is an amendment.

→ Constitution: A Constitution is a body of laws and rules according to which a country is governed.

→ Polity: The system of government or political organization.

→ Dual Polity: Union at the center and states at the periphery each with sovereign powers assigned to them by the Constitution.

→ Federal system: Dual polity (or) a system of two governments at two levels with well-defined powers.

→ Sovereign state: A state having supreme power (in internal and external affairs) and fully independent.

→ Socialist state: One which tries to bring about economic and social equality.

→ Secular state: A state which does not have any religious concern or does not interfere with the religious affairs of people.

→ Justice: Everyone should be treated with equal fairness or everyone should be given his/her due.

→ Equality: Each individual is assured of equality of status and opportunity for development.

## AP Board 9th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 3 Hydrosphere

Students can go through AP State Board 9th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 3 Hydrosphere to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 9th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 3 Hydrosphere

→ From all sources of water reaching the earth less than 1 % of water is useful to man.

→ The cyclic process in which water undergoing a cycle from oceans to land and land to oceans is called the hydrological cycle.

→ There are six stages of the water cycle. They are

1. Evaporation
2. Transportation
3. Condensation
4. Precipitation
5. Runoff and
6. Groundwater.

→ Of the total water on the earth, 97.25% is saline ocean waters and 2.75% is freshwater.

→ Continents and oceans are the first-order relief features of the earth.

→ There are five oceans on the earth. They are

1. The Pacific Ocean
2. The Atlantic Ocean
3. The Indian Ocean
4. The Southern Ocean and
5. The Arctic Ocean.

→ Millions of years ago oceans were combined together. The single super ocean was known as Panthalassa.

→ Continental shelf, Continental slope, Deep sea plain, and Oceanic deeps or Trenches are the reliefs of the ocean.

→ Most of the deepest trenches are located close to the continents.

→ A line joining points on the sea bed at an equal vertical distance beneath the surface is called ‘Isobath’or ‘Depth contour’.

→ Over millions of years rain, rivers and streams have washed over rocks containing the compound Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and carried them into the sea.

→ The total content of dissolved salts in seawater is called salinity.

→ Salinity is usually expressed as parts per thousand or ppt.

→ The average salinity of the oceans is 35%0 or about 35 parts of salt in 1000 parts of water.

→ A line joining the points in the ocean that has the same degree of salinity is called ‘Isohaline’.

→ The ocean temperature is influenced by latitudes, winds and ocean currents, unequal distribution of land, and change of seasons.

→ As one goes deep inside the oceans, the temperature rapidly decreases for every 1 km and remains stable at the foot of the ocean.

→ Generally, warm currents flow towards the poles and cold currents flow towards the Equator.

→ The ocean current which flows speedily is called a stream and that which flows slowly is called a drift

→ Centrifugal force, effects of winds, the effect of precipitation, and the effect of solar energy are the causes for the ocean currents.

→ Stream: The ocean current that flows speedily is called a stream.

→ Drift: The ocean current that flows slowly is called a drift.

→ Ocean current: The general movement of a mass of water in a fairly defined direction over a great distance.

→ Transpiration: A considerable proportion of water vapor is released into the atmosphere by plants, through a process called ‘Transpiration’.

→ Salinity: The total content of dissolved salts in seawater is called salinity.

→ Elnino; Lanino: These are the effects caused by the changes in temperature in the Pacific Ocean.

→ Centrifugal force: The radially outward force on a body in a uniform circular motion, observable only in a rotating frame of reference is called ‘Centrifugal force’.

→ Hydrological cycle: Water undergoes a cycle from oceans to land and then from land to the oceans. This cyclic process is called the hydrological cycle.

→ Evaporation: The process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas is called evaporation.

→ Condensation: Forming tiny droplets and clouds from water vapor is called condensation.

→ Precipitation: Transporting water from the atmosphere in the form of rain, sleet or snow, is called precipitation.

→ Sea: A sea is a body of saline water partly or fully enclosed by land.

→ Continental shelf: The border zone between land and sea with depth up to 200 m is called the continental shelf.

→ Continental slope: The complex relief of the ocean spread from 200 m to 3000 m is called the continental slope.

→ Deep-sea plain: Gently sloping areas of the ocean basins whose depths vary between 3000 m to 6000 m are called deep-sea plains.

→ Oceanic Deeps (or) Trenches: The large narrow trenches that plunge as great ocean deeps to a depth of 6000 m are called oceanic depths or trenches.

→ Isoline: A-line joining the points in the ocean having the same degree of salinity is called Isohaline.

→ Millions of years ago, oceans were combined together. The single super ocean was known as ‘Panthalsa’.

→ Isobaths: A-line joining points on the sea bed at an equal vertical distance beneath the surface. Sometimes referred to as depth contours.
→ River water contains 2% of sodium chloride.

→ Highest Salinity in Water bodies

• Lake Van – Turkey – 330%
• Dead Sea – Israel – 238%
• Great Salt lake – the USA – 220%

→ Lowest Salinity in Water bodies

• Baltic Sea – 3-15%
• Hudson Bay – 3-15%

→ The highest temperature is recorded in the Inland Seas. The temperature is the highest in the Red Sea, i.e., 38°C.

 68.7% Ice and snow 29.9% Underground water 1.4% Rivers, lakes, and reservoirs 100.0% Total

## AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 18 Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 18 Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77) to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 18 Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

→ In the early years of independence many challenges like leadership, maintenance of unity and integrity were there.

→ There were also other challenges like social and economic transformation and to ensure the successful working erf democratic system.

→ The first elections were difficult as most people did not know how to read and write.

→ Election Commission used the symbols from daily life for visual identification.

→ In Independent India’s first three general elections in 1952, 1957 and 1962, the Indian National Confess won reducing other participants to almost nothing.

→ Among the first challenges the new nation laced was the demand for the reorganisation of states on the basis erf language.

→ In August 1953 the States Reorganisation Commission was appointed with Fazl Ali, K.M.Panikkar and Hridaynath Kunzru on the basis of linguistic principle.

→ It created 14 States and 6 Union territories.

→ planning Commission was set up to dissolve the divisions of caste and religion, community and region and other disruptive tendencies.

→ The First Five Year Plan focussed on agriculture.

→ Nehru favoured land reforms, agricultural cooperatives and local self-government for development.

→ India, Indonesia, Egypt together built a policy of not joining either of the power camp named the Non-Alignment Movement.

→ Official Languages Act passed in 1963 made Hindi imposed in all states.

→ The DMK believed that act to be an attempt to foist Hindi on the rest of the country and they began a state-wide protest.

→ The shift of a price-incentive and technocratic strategy between the years 1964 – 67 is called the “Green Revolution”.

→ 1967 elections show the big transition in India where many regional parties came to power.

→ It propounded India is moving towards a multiparty system.

→ Immediately after the victory in the 1971 Bangladesh war, Indira Gandhi used the popular slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’.

→ Raised oil prices inflation, scarcity of food and unemployment gave Congress government the public resentment.

→ Opposition united under Jaya Prakash Narayan formed JP Movement.

→ As the JP movement gaining strength the government imposed an emergency.

→ An important achievement of this period (1947-77) was the establishment of stable democracy.

→ States Reorganisation: Commission set up to address the issue of formation of states on the basis of linguistic principle

→ One-party dominance: In Independent India’s first three general elections trie Indian National Congress won reducing other participants to almost nothing. It only established governments in states and at the centre also. There was no party to challenge Congress. This period was known as one-party dominance.

→ Emergency: Something dangerous or serious, such as an accident, which happens suddenly or unexpectedly and needs immediate action in order to avoid harmful results.

→ Reg4nal movements: The movement by the people of a region to preserve 2nd promote the language, customs, culture, economy and the way of life of that region.

→ Nationalisation : (of a government) The act of taking control of a business or industry.

→ Universal Adult: Every person, who is a citizen of India and completes 18 Franchise years of age can become a voter irrespective of religion, race, caste, gender, etc.

→ Congress system: The Congress party formed government at the centre and in many states in the first three general elections. This inaugurated what some observers called the Congress system.

→ Multi-party system A country that allows many political parties to exist and vie for power and serve the democracy.

→ Linguistic States: The states which were formed on the basis of the language that their people speak.

→ Planning Commission: It was set up in 1950 to oversee coordinated developmental planning.

→ Election Commission.: An autonomous body that conducts elec Lions to the Parliament and state legislatures in a free and fair manner.

→ Zamindari system: The system wherein Zamindar collected land revenue, on behalf of Mughal emperors and received a share of collected revenue.

→ Tenancy reforms: Reforms aimed at fixing rent on land, collecting it from the tenant farmers and defining them.

→ Land ceilings Central government set a limit to the size of landholding and redistributing the excess land to the poor.

→ Land reforms: Reforms aimed at farmérs to pay land tax direction to government, abolishing zamindari system and redistributing the land, etc.

→ Cold War: A war of tension caused by the two rival alliances and the USSR

→ Non – Aligned Movement: A foreign po&y which Is aimed to keep aloof from and USSR power blocs and serve the cause of world peace.

→ Panchsheel policy: An agreement between India and China made respect territorial Integrity and sovereignty of nations and practise peaceful coexistence.

→ Anti-Hindi agitations: A statewide campaign by DMK In Tamil Nadu against the imposition of Hindi as the official language for the country

→ Green revolution: Use of high yielding varieties (seeds) for the increase of crop production and better water management

→ Left of the centre group: This group in a party or government usually supports state control and nationalisation and socialism.

→ Regional parties: The parties which secure at least 4% of valid votes In a state In general elections either to Lok Sabha or Vidhana

→ Liberation movement: Movement organised for independence or formation of new

→ Tenant farmers: The peasants who cultivated the lands of landlords are called tenant cultivators (or farmers).

→ Comptroller and Auditor – General: A person in charge of the accounts of the Union and of the States.

## AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 19 Emerging Political Trends 1977 to 2000

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 19 Emerging Political Trends 1977 to 2000 to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 19 Emerging Political Trends 1977 to 2000

→ The period between 1975 to 1985 was a testing time for Indian Democracy.

→ When the 1977 elections were announced, Indira released all political prisoners and removed censorship on freedom of movement, campaigns, and meetings.

→ All opposition parties merged to form Janata Party.

→ Janata Party became victorious and dismissed nine state governments that enjoyed a majority belonged to Congress.

→ The factional struggle in Janata Party soon culminated in the fall of the government within three years.

→ The Congress returned to power in 1980 and paid back Janata Party by dismissing nine non-Congress state governments.

→ There were different strands of the demands for autonomy in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, and Punjab.

→ The frequent change of Chief Ministers by the central Congress leadership made people believe they are not respected.

→ Popular film actor N.T. Ramarao set up Telugu Desam Party on the plank of the honor and self-respect of the Telugu-speaking people and swept the 1982 elections.

→ The Assamese-speaking people faced difficulties with the officialdom of Bengalis and the flooding of Bangladeshis.

→ In the 1970s, a social movement came out under the leadership of the All Assam Students Union (AASU).

→ There were talks between agitations and the central government for 3 years and reached an agreement.

→ When elections were conducted Assam Gana Parishad, an offshoot of AASU came to power.

→ In Punjab also there is agitation stating their state was ignored, more powers to states through a constitutional amendment, greater decentralization as their demands.

→ Bhindranwale, leader of militant Sikhs preached separatism and a special state Khalistan was demanded.

→ They occupied Golden Temple and the army vacated them.

→ A fallout of all this was the assassination of Indira.

→ Rajiv liberalized system, hoped the participation of the masses, brought the telecom revolution.

→ Communalism sprang during this time through the demolition of Babri Masjid and try to build Ram Temple at Ayodhya.

→ This was the beginning of successful coalitions at the center.

→ Mandal Commission provided for Other Backward Class reservations and globalization are of this period.

→ Regional aspiratIons: Regions agitating for separate statehood, local parties In power, greater shares in revenue and waters, etc., more decentralization.

→ Coalition: A government formed by two or more political parties governments working together.

→ Communalism: A strong sense of religious belonging that leads to extreme behavior or violence to others.

→ Majority: The amount by which the greater number of votes is cast, as In an election, exceéds the total number of remaining votes.

→ Minority: A group or party having fewer than a controlling number of votes.

→ Single party A democratic country where all the elections were won over democracy by a single political party decimating all others.

→ Outsiders : (In this context) The Assamese people called the Bengalis, migrators from Bangladesh, mostly Muslims.

→ Ethnic cleansing : (here) FoiIble eviction of minthïty tribal communities by even outright mass killing In man parts of Assam.

→ Telecom revolution: (In India) Speeding up and’ spreading the network of telephonic communication In India using satellite technology.

→ Policy paralysis: In coalitions, the leading party could not Implement a policy for fear of withdrawal of support by partners.

→ Inclusive development: Making the scheduled cutes, scheduled tribes, and backward classes and minorities as a part of the process of development.

→ Mandal Commission: A committee chaired by B.P. Mandai recommended reservations for Other Backward Cluses In government employment and educational facilities.

→ Rath Yatra: In 1990, LK. Advani, the leader of BiP led ‘Rath Yatra’ from Somnath to Ayodhya, In support of Rani Temple at Ayodhya.

→ Liberalization: Cuts in subsidies, expenditure on public services reducIng restriction foreign Investment in India and taxes on import of foreign goods; openIng many sectors to private Investors.

→ Majority government: The set up of government by a political party that got more than 5% of seats.

→ Minority government: Coalition government where the strength of the leading party is below 50% IndivIdually but the coalition has a majority.

→ LTTE: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a Tamil separatist group of Sri Lanka.

## AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 20 Post – War World and India

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 20 Post – War World and India to understand and remember the concept easily.

## AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 20 Post – War World and India

→ Three of the most important processes that took place after the Second World War are the establishment of the United Nations, the Cold War, and Decolonisation.

→ At the time of its establishment UN had a membership of 54 countries and today (2014) there are 193 countries.

→ It was started with twin objectives of ensuring lasting peace and human development.

→ It works through six different organs.

→ Security Council, an organ of the UN, has 5 permanent membership countries with Veto (made invalid or rejected) power.

→ For more than fifty years after World War II, Cold War was fought between the USA and the USSR.

→ The destruction was of third world countries, which fought under the influence of the two blocks.

→ The superpowers formed alliances and expanded their influence to gain access to resources like oil and minerals.

→ Both the USSR and the USA spent huge amounts of money to conduct research into weapons and space. ,

→ People of all countries lived in constant fear of war.

→ The Bandung conference represented by 29 nations from Africa and Asia paved the way for the Non-Aligned Movement.

→ By 2012, its membership is 120 countries with 17 Observers.

→ West Asian or the Middle East conflicts have the bone of contention Israel, a newly formed Jews state.

→ The reforms introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in Russia, ‘the Glasnost’ and ‘Perestroika’ resulted in disbanding of USSR in 1991.

→ India made a Panchsheel agreement with China in 1954 but the latter made a surprise attack on India in 1962.

→ Later full diplomatic relations were restored only in 1976.

→ The bone of contention for Indo-Pak relations is Kashmir.

→ Pakistan waged many wars with India over Kashmir.

→ India made a 25-year peace treaty with Bangladesh in 1972, after its liberation.

→ Since times immemorial, India and Sri Lanka have had cultural, ethnic, and economic relations.

→ Military alliances: Formation of groups in connection with armed forces

→ Proxy war: The USA and the USSR are not fighting directly, they support two opposing sides in the countries of their sphere of influence and there is a physical war

→ Arms race: Countries spending huge amounts of money to conduct research into weapons and building arsenals of devastating arms.

→ Unipolar: The world led by one superpower In the military, economic supremacy, and ideology.

→ Bipolar: The world is divided between two superpowers for military, economic supremacies, and Ideological conflict.

→ Decolonization: Granting of independence to a colony = freeing It from colonial states

→ Peace: A situation or a period of time in which there is no war or violence in a country, area, or in the world.

→ Veto: Make invalid or reject = A provision given to five permanent members of the security council in UNO (China, France, the UK, the USSR, and the USA) through which any decision taken by the council can be vetoed by the Intervention of even any one of these countries.

→ Ethnic conflict: The tight of people of a particular race with another race and to have control over it.

→ Panchsheel: FIve principles of peaceful coexistence, India made an agreement with Panchsheel with China in 1954. Principles are like mutual non-aggression, equality, and mutual benefit, mutual non-Interference in each- others’ internal affairs, etc.

→ Great Depression: A great decline in trade and general prosperity worldwide (1929-39)

→ Cold War: The intense tension between the US and the USSR (during 1945-1991) of propaganda and words, in absence of real fighting.

→ Dictatorship: The rule which is not effectively restricted by a constitution, laws and recognized opposition, etc.

→ Imperialism: The practice of extending a state’s rule over other territories, colonizing them.

→ Capitalism: Economic system based on private ownership of means of production, distribution, and exchange and operated for profits.

→ Communism: Belief that private ownership of land, factories, railways, banks, etc. should be replaced by public ownership.

→ Autonomy: The freedom for a country to govern itself independently.

→ Moderation: The quality of being moderate (reasonable) and not being extreme.

→ Third world: The countries emerging from colonial.

→ DomInation: Rest of the world from 2 blocks, USA and USSR.

→ Strategic alliances: Formation of groups In connection with getting an advantage In war or other military situations.

→ Flashpoints: Situations where violence starts and cannot be controlled.

→ Nationalism: The desire by a group of people who share the same race, culture, language, etc. to form an independent country.

→ Secularism: The belief that religion shall not be involved in administration (or) government’s non-interference in religion.