AP Board 9th Class Physical Science Notes in Telugu & English Medium

AP State Syllabus 9th Class Physical Science Notes in Telugu & English Medium

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes in English Medium

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes in Telugu Medium

AP State Board Notes

AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes in Telugu & English Medium

AP State Syllabus 10th Class Biology Notes in Telugu & English Medium

AP 10th Class Biology Notes in English Medium

AP 10th Class Biology Notes in Telugu Medium

AP State Board Notes

AP Board 9th Class Social Studies Notes in Telugu & English Medium

AP State Syllabus 9th Class Social Studies Notes in Telugu & English Medium

AP 9th Class Social Notes in English Medium

AP 9th Class Social Notes in Telugu Medium

AP State Board Notes

AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment to understand and remember the concept easily.

AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment

→ The sum of physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism is called environment.

→ The living organisms maintain balance with both biotic and abiotic factors.

→ The place where organisms live is called the biosphere.

→ The food chain shows how energy is passed from one organism to another.

→ The terrestrial ecosystems are being determined largely by the variations in climatic conditions between the poles and equator.

→ The climatic factors that determine the ecosystems are rainfall, temperature, and availability of light from the sun.

→ Niche denotes not only the animals’ position in the food web and what it eats but also its mode of life.

→ Graphic representation of the feeding level of an ecosystem by taking the shape of a pyramid is called an ecological pyramid.

→ The ecological pyramid was first introduced by Charles Elton in 1927.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment

→ Pyramid of numbers, the pyramid of biomass, and the pyramid of energy are other ways to show food relationships and flow of energy among living things.

→ A pyramid is a large stone building with four triangular walls that slope into a point at the top.

→ Each bar in the pyramid of numbers represents the number of individuals at each trophic level in the food chain.

→ Any type of plant or animal material that can be converted into energy is called biomass.

→ Biomass which can be used for energy production is called bio-fuels.

→ The pyramid of biomass represents the relationship that exists between the quantity of living matter at different trophic levels.

→ It is found that 10-20% of the biomass is transferred from one tropic level to the next in a food chain.

→ The food chains and food webs help in the transfer of food and energy from producers to different consumers.

→ The flow of materials between organisms and their environment is called the cycling of materials or biogeochemical cycles.

→ The ratio between energy flows at different tropic levels along the food chain expressed as a percentage is called “Ecological efficiency”.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment

→ Slobodkin (1959) suggested that the transfer of energy from one tropic level to the next is of the order of 10% and this is called “Gross ecological efficiency”.

→ 10 % law was originally observed by Lindeman (1942).

→ Steele (1974) proved that the gross ecological efficiency is about 20 to 30%.

→ In November 1999, the Government of Andhra Pradesh had declared the Kolleru Lake as Bird Sanctuary.

→ Using pesticides indiscriminately results in the killing of a vast number of other animals apart from pests.

→ The process of entry of pollutants into a food chain is known as bioaccumulation.

→ The tendency of pollutants to concentrate as they move from one tropic level to the next is known as biomagnification.

→ Minamata disease (Japan) was the result of bioaccumulation of the metal mercury in shellfish and fish that live in Minimata Bay.

→ There are several alternatives of pesticides through which we can get more crops with less harm like the rotation of crops, biological control, sterility of males, development of genetic resistant strains, etc.

→ Food chain: It represents a single directional or unidirectional transfer of energy the pathway along which food is transferred from one tropic level to another beginning with producers.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment

→ Food web: The interlocking pattern of a number of food chains forms a web-like arrangement.

→ Niche: The functional role of an organism in a community.

→ Ecological pyramId: A graphical representation designed to show the biomass or number of organisms or energy at each tropic level in a given ecosystem.

→ Biomass: Any type of plant or animal material that can be converted into energy is called biomass.

→ PesticIdes: A chemical substance used to kill insects and small animals that destroy crops.

→ Bioaccumulation: The process of entry of pollutants into a food chain is known as bioaccumulatiorì.

→ Biomagnification: The tendency of pollutants to concentrate as they move from one tropic level to the next is known as biomagnification.

→ Eco-friendly activities: These are the activities to protect the environment.

→ Environmental ethics: These are concerned with the morality of human activities as they affect the environment.

→ Biosphere: It is the largest unit of organization of life. It includes all the biomes of the world i.e., Terrestrial, aquatic, or aerial where life exists.

→ Pyramid: A large stone building with four triangular walls that slope into a point at the top, especially in Egypt.

→ Biofuels: When biomass is used for energy production, it is known as biofuels. Fuel made from plant or animal sources.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment

→ Pyramid of number: A graphical representation designed to show the number of organisms at each tropic level in a given ecosystem.

→ Pyramid of biomass: A graphical representation designed to show the quantity of energy present at each tropic level in a given ecosystem.

→ DDT: “Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloro Ethane” is a chemical used to kill insects that harm crops.

→ Deciduous: (of tree or shrub) Shedding its leaves annually broad-leaved tree or shrub.

→ Environment: The sum of physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism is called environment.

→ Biotic factor: A living thing, as an animal or plant, that influences or affects an ecosystem.

→ Abiotic factors: Non-living components of an ecosystem.

→ Dissipate: Disappear or cause to disappear.

→ Tropical rain forest: It is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth located in between the latitudes 28 degrees north and south of the equator.

→ Perpetual: Never ending or changing.

→ Phytoplankton: Microscopic plants that live in watery environments both salty and fresh.

→ Regurgitate: Bring up again to the mouth (swallowed food).

→ Substantial: Of considerable importance, size, or worth.

→ Rivulet: A small stream of water or another liquid.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment

→ Anthropogenic: Originating in human activity, chiefly of environmental pollution and pollutants.

→ Swarm: A large or dense group of flying insects.
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment 1

→ Pyramid Numbers:
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment 2

→ Pyramid of Biomass:
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment 3

→ Different trophic levels:
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment 4

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 9 Our Environment

→ Charles Sutherland Elton (1900 – 1991):

  • Charles Elton of England was among the most important and influential ecologists of the twentieth century
  • In the early 1920s, while still a student at Oxford, he took part in three expeditions to the Arctic island of Spitsbergen.
  • He wrote three important books which are classics in ecology. Those are
    1. Animal Ecology (1927),
    2. Voles, Mice and Lemmings: Problems in Population Dynamics (1942),
    3. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants (1958).
  • He was the founder and editor of the Journal of Animal Ecology.
  • He is especially remembered for his studies on animal community patterns including the concepts of “Estonian niche” and the “Pyramid of numbers”.

AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation to understand and remember the concept easily.

AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

→ All living organisms need nutrients, gases, liquids, etc. for the growth and maintenance of the body.

→ In lower organisms like Amoeba and Hydra, all the materials are transported through a simple process like diffusion, osmosis, etc.

→ In higher organisms developed a specialized system called circulatory system for the transport of materials in the body.

→ Our pulse rate is equal to our heartbeat rate.

→ In 1816 Rene Laennec discovered the stethoscope to hear a heartbeat.

→ The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.

→ The heart is the vital organ located in between the lungs and protected by the rib cage.

→ The size of our heart is approximately the size of our fist.

→ Pericardial membranes covering the heart protect it from mechanical shocks and injuries.

→ The heart is divided into four parts.

→ The upper two parts of the heart are called atria or auricles and the lower ones are called ventricles.

→ The coronary vessels supply blood to the muscles of the heart.

→ The walls of the ventricles are relatively thicker than atrial walls.

→ Arteries are the blood vessels that supply blood to various organs in the body.

→ The largest artery is the Aorta arises from the upper part of the left ventricle.

→ The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. It arises from the right ventricle.

→ The superior vena cava collects blood from the anterior parts of the body and the inferior vena cava collects blood from the posterior parts of the body opens into the right atrium of the heart.

→ The two atria and the two ventricles are separated from each other by muscular partitions called septa.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

→ One-way walls that permit blood to flow in one direction were noticed in the veins of legs by Girolamo Fabrici (Ita.ly) in 1574.

→ William Harvey dissected the hearts of dead people and studied the valves between each atrium and its ventricle and noticed they were one-way valves.

→ Malpighi is called the smallest blood vessels which connect the smallest arteries and veins as capillaries.

→ Arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to body parts whereas veins carry deoxygenated blood from body parts to the heart.

→ Atrium and ventricle of the same side are connected by atrium ventricular aperture.

→ The human heart starts beating around the 21st day during embryonic development.

→ One contraction and one relaxation of atria and ventricles are called one cardiac cycle.

→ When the walls between the atria and ventricles are closed forcibly, we can listen to the first sharp sound of the heart ‘lubb’.

→ The valves which are present in the blood vessels are closed to prevent the backward flow of blood, we can listen to a dull sound of the heart ‘dubb’.

→ The cardiac cycle includes an active phase systole and a resting phase the diastole of atria and ventricles.

→ One cardiac cycle is completed in approximately 0.8 seconds.

→ The time needed for atrial contraction is 0.11 – 0.14 seconds.

→ The time needed for ventricular contraction is 0.27 – 0.35 seconds.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

→ If blood flows through the heart only once for completing one circulation it is called single circulation. eg: Fish.

→ If the blood flows through the heart twice for completing one circulation it is called double circulation. eg: Frog, Reptiles, Aves, and Mammals.

→ To supply nutrients to the cells, the liquid position of the blood with nutrients flows out of the capillaries. This is called tissue fluid.

→ The lymphatic system transports the tissue fluid into the main bloodstream.

→ Blood is a substance that contains solid and liquid particles whereas lymph is the substance that contains blood without solid particles.

→ In unicellular organisms like an amoeba, the protoplasm shows Brownian movements because the nutrients and oxygen are distributed throughout the protoplasm equally. Sponges use seawater for transportation by beating of flagella that are present in their body.

→ In cnidarians, saclike gastrovascular cavity digests the food and transports nutrients to each and every cell of the body. e.g: Hydra and Jellyfish.

→ In Platyhelminthes digestive system supplies food to all the cells directly and the excretory system collects wastes from each cell individually. e.g: Fasciola hepatica.

→ In nematyhelmenthes, the pseudocolor has taken up the function of collection and distribution of materials.

→ In Annelids the first acoelomate animals have developed a pulsative vessel to move the fluid and the transporting medium is blood.

→ The Arthropods have developed a pulsative organ heart to pump the blood.

→ The transport system that supplies nutrients to the tissues directly is an open type of circulatory system. e.g: Arthropods, many mollusks, and lower chordates.

→ In the closed type of circulatory system blood flows in blood vessels and then supplies nutrients to the body time. e.g: Cephalopod mollusks and octopus.

→ Doctors measure blood pressure with a device called a Sphygmomanometer. The normal blood pressure of a person is 120 / 80.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

→ People who have high B.P. during the resting period are said to have hypertension.

→ The straw yellowish-colored fluid portion after the formation of the blood clot is serum.

→ Vitamin K helps in the coagulation of blood.

→ Haemophilia is the result of a genetic disorder in which the blood may not coagulate. Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that is related to blood.

→ Osmosis plays a very important role in water absorption by root hairs.

→ Root pressure also plays a significant role in the absorption and movement of water in the xylem.

→ The evaporation of water through leaves is called transpiration.

→ Water also evaporates through the lenticels of the stem.

→ Fully grown maize plant transpires 15 liters per week.

→ The tissue that helps in the conduction of water is the xylem and the tissue that transports food in the phloem.

→ There is a relationship between transportation and transpiration in plants.

→ Mineral salts are necessary for plant nutrition and they are obtained from the soil solution through root hair.

→ Biologists studied food transportation in plants with the help of aphids.

→ Circulation: The movement of blood around the body.

→ Auricles: The upper chambers of the heart are called Auricles.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

→ Ventricles: The lower chambers of the heart are called Ventricles.

→ Pulse: The regular heartbeat while blood as it is sent around the body that can be felt in different places especially on the inner part of the wrist.

→ Artery: ‘the blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood to all body parts except pulmonary artery.

→ Vein: The blood vessel that collects deoxygenated blood except for the pulmonary vein.

→ Stethoscope: Instrument used to hear the sounds of heartbeat and sounds of Lungs.

→ Aorta: The main artery of the heart supplying oxygenated blood to all body parts. It arises from the left ventricle of the heart.

→ Capillary: It is a very fine blood vessel that connects the smallest arteries and veins.

→ Systole: The contraction phase of the heart is known as systole.

→ Diastole: The relaxation phase of the heart is called diastole.

→ Cardiac Cycle: One cardiac cycle includes an active phase systole and resting phase diastole of atria (auricles) and ventricles. The time required for completion of one cardiac cycle is approximately 0.8 seconds.

→ Blood Pressure (B.P.): The pressure with which the blood flows in the blood vessels is called blood pressure. The normal B.R of a person is 120/80.

→ Lymph: Lymph is the substance that contains blood without solid particles. A clear liquid containing white blood cells helps to clear the tissues of the body.

→ Single circulation: If the blood flows through the heart only once for completing one circulation, it is called single circulation. e.g: Fish.

→ Double circulation: If the blood flows through the heart twice for completing one circulation is called double circulation. e.g: Frog, Reptiles, Aves, mammals.

→ Coagulation of blood: It is clotting of blood when the injury occurs. Blood platelets in the blood play an important role in the coagulation of blood and prevent loss of blood.

→ Sphygmomaiìoineter: It is an instrument used by doctors to measure blood pressure.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

→ Prothrombin: A protein present in blood plasma that is converted into active thrombin during coagulation.

→ Thrombin: An enzyme in blood plasma that causes the clotting of blood by converting fibrinogen to fibrin.

→ Fibrinogen: A blood protein that helps in the clotting of blood when the vessels are injured.

→ Fibrin: It is an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen during the clotting of blood. It forms a fibrous mesh that obstructs the flow of blood.

→ Root hair: A thin hair-like outgrowth of an epidermal cell f a plant root that absorbs water and minerals from the sou.

→ Radicle: it is the first part of a seedling to emerge from the seed during the process of germination. it develops into a root,

→ Root pressure: Root pressure is osmotic pressure within the cells of a root system that causes sap to rise through ‘ plant stem to the leaves.

→ Plant nutrIents: These are the elements required for the normal growth of the plants. Plants absorb most of these nutrients from the soil through roots.

→ Xylem: It Is the water-conducting tissue in plants comprising b0th living and nonliving tissue.

→ Phloem: It is the food transporting tissue in plants consisting only of living tissue.

→ Vascular bundles: It is part of the transport system in vascular plants. It is a strand of conducting vessels in the stem or leaves of a plant typically with phloem on the outside and xylem on the inside.

→ Right atrIum: The upper right chamber of the heart receives deoxygenated blood through cava veins.

→ Left atrIum: The upper left chamber of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary vein.

→ Right ventrIcle: The lower right chamber of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium. Sends deoxygenated blood to lungs through the pulmonary artery.

→ Left ventrIcle: The lower left chamber of the heart from which the main Aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to aH body parts except for lungs.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

→ Butcher: A person whose trade is cutting up and selling meat ¡n a shop.

→ Stump: Apart, as of a branch, limb, or tooth. remaining after the main part has been cut away. broken off nr worn clown.

→ Pericardial membrane: The membrane that surrounds the heart and protects it from mechanical shocks.

→ Coronary vessels: The vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the muscles of the heart.

→ Superior vena cava: Receives deoxygenated blood from the head and arms and chest and opens into the right atrium of the heart.

→ Inferior vena cava (or) Post caval vein: It Is the large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart.

→ Dangling: Hanging or swinging loosely.

→ Spurts: A sudden strong flow of a liquid, a sudden increase in something.

→ Brownian movement: The erratic random movement of microscopic particles in a fluid, as a result of continuous bombardment from molecules of the surrounding medium.

→ Parazone: i) Any multicellular invertebrate of the group Parazoa. which consists of sponges.
ii) A primitive multicellular marine animal whose porous body is supported by a fibrous skeletal framework.

→ Cnidarians: An aquatic invertebrate animal of the phylum cnidaria, which comprises coelenterates.

→ Gastrovascular Cavity: Functions ¡n both digestion and distribution of nutrients and particles to all parts of the body.

→ Nematyhelmenthes: A phylum including the nematodes and worms and sometimes the acanthocephalans, rotifers, gastrotrichs and marine, organisms.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation

→ Pulsative organ: A minute muscular organ functioning as an accessory heart In various insects.

→ Lymphatic system: The network of vessels through which lymph drains from the tissues into the blood.

→ Lymphatic circulation: it is the process by which the lymphatic system circulates a clear fluid called lymph throughout the body.

→ Open type of circulatory system: Blood vessels are absent. Blood supplies nutrients directly to the tissues. e.g: Arthropods, many mollusks.

→ Closed type of circulatory system: Blood supplies nutrients and flows in the blood vessels. e.g: Cephalopod mollusks, higher animals (e.g: Octopus).

→ Edema: A condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting In the cavities or tissues of the body.

→ Systolic pressure: The blood pressure during the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.

→ Diastolic pressure: The blood pressure after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart that refill with blood.

→ Thromboklnase: An enzyme liberated from blood platelets that convert prothrombin into thrombin as blood starts to clot.

→ Entangle: Cause to become twisted together with or caught in.

→ Serum: A protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates.

→ Squash: Crush or squeeze with a force so that it becomes flat, soft, or out of shape.

→ Tensile strength: The resistance of a material to breaking under tension.

→ Oak: It ¡s a tree or shrub ¡n the genus Quercus belongs to the family Fagaceae. Oakwood has great strength and hardness and is very resistant to insect and fungal attacks because of its high tannin content.

→ Aphids: A small bug that feeds by sucking sap from plants.

→ Cambium: A cellular plant tissue from which phloem, xylem, or cork grows by division resulting in secondary thickening.

→ Hemophilia: It Is a disease condition in which coagulation of blood may not occur due to genetic defect.

→ Badger: A heavily built omnivorous nocturnal mammal of the weasel family, typically having a grey and black coat.

→ Sycamore: It ¡s a name that is applied at various times and places to several different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms.

→ Gnaw: Bite at or nibble something persistently.
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation 1
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 3 Transportation 2
→ William Harvey (1578-1657) – Father Of Cardio Vascular Medicine:

  • William Harvey was an English Physician born in 1578.
  • He was the first scientist to describe completely and ¡n detail the systematic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart.
  • He wrote a book on the circulation of blood called “De Motu Cordis”.
  • He concluded that blood flows through the arteries and comes back to the heart by veins.
  • Harvey dissected the hearts of dead people and studied valves between each atrium and its ventricles.

AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 4 Climate of India

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 4 Climate of India to understand and remember the concept easily.

AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 4 Climate of India

→ What have been the general conditions, year after year over thirty years or more gives us the climate,

→ The elements of weather and climate are temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, and precipitation,

→ Climograph shows average monthly values of maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and rainfall for a given place.

→ The factors that affect climate are called climatic controls. These include

  • Latitude
  • Land-water relationship
  • Relief and
  • Upper air circulation.

→ The average temperatures for the year drop as you go further away from the Equator.

→ Darker areas such as heavily vegetated regions tend to be good absorbers; lighter areas, such as snow and ice-covered regions, tend to be good reflectors.

→ The difference between the temperature of day and night and that of summer and winter is not much. This is known as ‘equable climate’.

→ Hills and mountains will have lower temperatures than locations on the plain.

→ The climate of India is affected by the movement of upper air currents in the atmosphere above 12,000 m called ‘Jet Streams’.

→ The temperature in the Indian landmass considerably reduces from Mid-November and this cold season continues till February.

→ During the hot season, as we move from the southern to the northern part of the country, the average temperature increases.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 4 Climate of India

→ The monsoon forms in the tropical area approximately between 20eN and 208S latitudes,

→ The bulk of annual rainfall in India is received from the southwest monsoon.

→ The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and a rise in temperature.

→ As the Earth started to take shape from a fire bail to a planet, many gases were released.

→ These gases did not escape into outer space because of the Earth’s gravitational pull, and it still holds them back.

→ The atmosphere traps a lot of solar energy that reaches the Earth by preventing it from totally escaping back into space. This is called the Greenhouse effect.

→ Much of the warming has been occurring since thelhdfiStrfal Revolution is because of human activities. Hence, the current global warming is Anthropogenic Globed Warming.

→ Methane is said to be even more powerful than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. c& AGW (Anthropogenic Global Warming) is causing many changes in the distribution of heat in the Earth system.

→ One of the human activities that contribute to global warming is deforestation.

→ An international effort to form an agreement whereby all countries try to reduce their emission of greenhouse gases has so far not been achieved.

→ Climograph: Graphs that show average monthly values of maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and rainfall for a given place.

→ Weather: The state of the atmospheric conditions over an area at a particular time.

→ Monsoon: The seasonal reversal of wind system in India.

→ Insolation (IncomIng solar radiation): The heat coming from the Sun to the Earth’s surface In the form of rays.

→ Jet streams: The fast flowing upper air currents in a narrow belt In the upper atmosphere above 12,000 m.

→ Pressure zone: The exertion of force by one body on the surface of another.

→ Global Warming: Atmosphere traps a lot of solar energy that reaches Earth by preventing it from totally escaping into space This is called Global Warming.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 4 Climate of India

→ Climate Weather conditions followed a similar general pattern over many years over a large area.

→ Climatic controls The factors that affect climates like latitude, relief, land-water relationship, and upper air circulation.

→ Equable climate: The climatic condition where the differences between the temperatures of day and night and summer and winter are not much

→ Trade winds: Winds blowing from sub4roplcal high-pressure belt to equatorial low-pressure belt by reflecting towards the west are called trade winds.

→ Western disturbances: Cyclone depressions coming from the mediterranean sea.

→ Loo: A dry hot wind that blows In the northern plain of India.

→ Bursting monsoon: The pre-monsoon showers towards the end of the summer season in the Deccan Plateau.

→ Mango showers: The pre-monsoon showers In Andhra Pradesh helping the early ripening of mangoes.

→ The onset of the monsoon: By the beginning of June, the arrival of the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch in India is called the onset of the monsoon.

→ The onset of the monsoon: By the beginning of June, the arrival of the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch in India is called the onset of the monsoon.

→ Anthropogenic Global Warming: Global warming that is caused by humans since the Industrial Revolution.

→ October heat: WIth high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes oppressive during the retreat of the monsoon is called October heat.
AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 4 Climate of India 1
AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 4 Climate of India 2

AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes in Telugu & English Medium

AP State Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes in Telugu & English Medium

AP 10th Class Social Notes in English Medium

AP 10th Class Social Notes in Telugu Medium

AP State Board Notes

AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration to understand and remember the concept easily.

AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration

→ The respiratory system is the integrated system of organs involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment.

→ Respiration is the process by which food is broken down for the release of energy.

→ From his early experiment, Lavoisier thought that the gas liberated on heating charcoal was like fixed air (CO,).

→ Lavoisier also felt that whatever it was in the atmosphere helped in the burning of phosphorous.

→ Lavoisier noted that the air we breathe out precipitated lime water while that after heating metal did not.

→ Lavoisier also found that something beyond the lungs occurred to produce carbon dioxide and body heat.

→ The pathway of air in our body through the respiratory system – Nostrils → Nasal cavity → Pharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Bronchi → Bronchioles → Lungs → Alveoli.

→ By respiratory system, we usually mean the passage that transport air into the lungs and to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli and vice versa.

→ The inhaled air passes through the nasal cavity its temperature is brought close to that of the body, and it takes up water vapour from it. Air is also filtered in the nasal cavity.

→ Epiglottis, a flap-like muscular valve controls movements of air and food towards their respective passages.

→ When air passes over the vocal cords in the larynx, it causes them to vibrate and produce sounds.

→ The trachea or windpipe channels air to the lungs and it divides into two bronchi – one leading to each lung.

→ The bronchi further divide into small and smaller branches called bronchioles.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration

→ Bronchioles finally terminate in clusters of air sacs called alveolus in the lungs which are very small and numerous.

→ The gaseous exchange takes place in alveoli as blood capillaries take up oxygen and expel CO2.

→ Breathing is the process of inhaling and exhaling.

→ When the volume of the chest cavity is increased, its internal pressure decreases and the air from the outside rushes into the lungs. This is known as inspiration.

→ During expiration, the chest wall is lowered and moves inward and the diaphragm relaxes and assumes its dome shape.

→ Two membranes called pleura covers the lungs.

→ Oxygen is carried in the blood by binding haemoglobin which is present in the red blood cells.

→ Aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen-producing a lot of energy, CO2 and water.

→ Anaerobic respiration and fermentation occur in the absence of oxygen-producing less amount of energy.

→ ATP – Adenosine Tri Phosphate.

→ The energy released due to the breakdown of sugar molecules is stored in ATP.

→ Each ATP molecule gives 7200 calories of energy. This energy is stored in the form of phosphate bonds.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration

→ In all organisms, glucose is oxidized in two stages. In the first stage called glycolysis, it is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid.

→ In the second stage, if oxygen is available, pyruvic acid is oxidized to CO2 and water releases a lot of energy.

→ If oxygen is inadequate or not available, pyruvic acid is converted into either ethanol or lactic acid and has very little amount of energy.

→ Accumulation of lactic acid results in muscular pain.

→ Yeast grows rapidly if it is supplied v^th glucose in solution.

→ The combustion of glucose gives us carbon dioxide, water and energy.

→ The reasons for the development of different types of respiratory organs are body size, availability of water and the type of respiratory system.

→ The tracheal respiratory system is seen in insects like cockroaches, grasshoppers, etc.

→ In bronchial respiration, organisms respire with the help of gills or bronchus, e.g: Fish.

→ Respiration through the skin is known as cutaneous respiration, e.g: Frog, Earthworm and Leeches.

→ The gaseous exchange takes place mainly in the stomata of leaves. The gaseous exchange also takes place on the plants like the surface of roots, lenticels on the stem.

→ Photosynthesis is a process of synthesis or an anabolic process that occurs in chloroplasts whereas respiration is a catabolic process that breakdown down complex food molecules in cells.

→ Respiration occurs in the cytoplasm and mitochondria where carbohydrates are burned to produce energy.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration

→ For a plant’s metabolism, both photosynthesis and respiration are required.

→ During the daytime, the rate of photosynthesis is usually higher than that of respiration while at night it is just reverse in most plants.

→ Aerobic respiration: Respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen.

→ Anaerobic respiration: Respiration is carried out in the absence of oxygen.

→ Alveoli: The structural and functional unit of lungs. Very small and numerous chambers are present in the lungs.

→ Pharynx: It is the common passage for food and air.

→ Trachea: It Is also known as the windpipe. It connects the nose and mouth to the lungs.

→ Bronchi: It is the part of the trachea that enter the lungs. These conduct air into the lungs.

→ Bronchioles: The bronchus branches into smaller tubes which in turn become bronchioles.

→ Epiglottis: A flap-like muscular valve that controls movements of air and food towards their respective passages.

→ Anabolic process: it ¡s the phase of metabolism In which simple substances are synthesized into complex materials of living tissue.

→ Catabolic process: Metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simple ones.

→ Aerial roots: Plants that have their roots in very wet places such as ponds or marshes are unable to obtain oxygen. These plants form roots above the soil surface and take in oxygen through these roots. These roots are called aerial roots. Ex: mangrove.

→ Lenticels: The exchange of gases takes place from the stem through the openings called lenticels.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration

→ Fermentation: In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells convert glucose to ethanol (alcohol). This process is called Fermentation. For the production of alcohol, molasses, grape juice and germinating barley or wheat grains are used as raw materials.

→ Energy currency: ATP is called the energy currency of the cell. ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate) serves as the primary energy source in the cell. This complex molecule is critical for all life from the simplest to the most complex ATP. it is a complex nanomachine that serves as the primary energy currency of the cell.

→ Glycolysis: It is the first phase of respiration ¡n which glucose molecule is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid.

→ Respiration: It is the process by which food is broken down to release energy in the cell.

→ Breath: The air is taken into or expelled from the lungs.

→ Combustion: A chemical process in which substances combine with the oxygen in the air to produce heat and light.

→ Vitiated air: Air from which oxygen has been removed. Air containing a reduced percentage of oxygen.

→ Chalky acid gas: Carbon dioxide.

→ Diaphragm: The layer of the muscle between the lungs and the stomach, used especially to control breathing.

→ Inspiration or Inhalation: it is the stage of external respiration in which air or water is taken into the respiratory organ.

→ Expiration or Exhalation: It is the stage of external respiration in which air or water is sent out of the respiratory organ.

→ Pleura: These are the membranes covering the lungs.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration

→ Oxidation: It is the process of the addition of oxygen atoms from the substance or removal of hydrogen atoms from it.

→ Pant: To breath quickly with short noisy breaths because of running, climbing. etc.

→ Janus Green B solution: It is used to test the presence of oxygen in the medium.
(or)
Diazine solution It is blue ¡n colour and turns pink when oxygen is in short supply around it.

→ Dough: A mixture of flour and water ready to be baked into bread.

→ Fractional distillatIon: It is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them in to temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will evaporate.

→ Tracheal respiration: It is the respiration that occurs through tube-like structures (trachea) present in insects.

→ Bronchial respiration: Respiration that occurs through gills is called bronchial respiration. Ex: Fish

→ Cutaneous respiratIon: If the respiration occurs through the skin that type of respiration is called cutaneous respiration. e.g: Frog, Earthworm and Leeches.

→ Orchid: A plant that has flowers with three parts, the middle one being like a lip.

→ Gradient: The rate at which oxygen changes, or increases and decreases between one region and another region.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration

→ Marsh: An area of low flat land that is always wet and soft.
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 2 Respiration 1

→Antoine Lavoisier (26-08-1743 – 08-05-1794) – Father Of Modern Chemistry:

  • Antoine Lavoisier was a French nobleman, chemist and leading figure in the 1 8th century chemical revolution.
  • He has developed the experimentally based theory of the chemical reactivity of oxygen.
  • Lavoisier coauthored the modern system for naming chemical substances.
  • He also worked on combustion, respiration and oxidation of metals in 1772.

AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition to understand and remember the concept easily.

AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ In autotrophic nutrition, organisms are capable of producing complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc., from carbon dioxide and water using light as a source of energy.

→ Plants prepare their own food materials through a process known as photosynthesis.

→ C.B. Van Neil in 1931 proposed the following equation for photosynthesis
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition 1

→ Van Neil first worked on purple sulphur bacteria and found light plays a specific role in photosynthesis.

→ Robert Hill showed 02 is released from water in photosynthesis.

→ The modified and balanced equation for photosynthesis is
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition 2

→ If we boil a leaf in methylated spirit over a water bath it loses its chlorophyll.

→ Von Helmont found that water was essential for the increase of plant mass.

→ Oxygen was discovered by Priestly in 1774 the name oxygen was coined by Lavoisier in the year 1775.

→ Priestly hypothesized that plants restore air what breathing animals and burning candles remove.

→ Jan Ingenhousz experimentally proved that the hydrilla plant releases oxygen in bright sunlight.

→ Engelman detected the point of the maximum rate of photosynthesis.

→ Ingenhousz concluded that only green plant parts could carry out the process of photosynthesis.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ In 1817 Pelletier and Caventou extracted the green coloured substance from the leaf and named its chlorophyll.

→ Pigments other than green colour could also aid in the process of photosynthesis by passing on the energy of sunlight trapped by them to chlorophyll.

→ In 1883 Julius Von Sachs observed the presence of chlorophyll in organelles called chloroplasts.

→ In 1954 Daniel I.Arnon isolated chloroplasts from plant cells that carry photosynthesis.

→ The third layer of chloroplast around it forms a stacked sac-like structure called a granum.

→ Granum is the site for trapping solar energy. Light reactions occur in Granum.

→ The fluid-filled portion of the chloroplast is the stroma in which dark reactions occur.

→ The sunlight absorbing substances found in chloroplast are photosynthetic pigments.

→ Photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll contains one atom of magnesium.

→ Chlorophyll ‘a’ is blue-green in colour and chlorophyll ‘b’ is yellow-green colour.

→ The events that occur in chloroplasts during photosynthesis are

  • Conversion of light energy to chemical energy.
  • Splitting of the water molecule and
  • Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.

→ The light reaction takes place in chlorophyll-containing thylakoids called grana of chloroplasts.

→ Photon is the smallest unit of light energy.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ The splitting of water molecules by light is known as the photolysis of water. Water splits into hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl ion (OH).

→ Photolysis of water was discovered by Robert Hill. Hence it is known as Hill’s reaction.

→ The hydroxyl ions (OH) through a series of steps produce water (H2O) and oxygen (O2).

→ O2, ATP and NADPH are formed at the end of the light reaction.

→ The time gap between the light and dark reaction is less than even one-thousandth of a second.

→ The dark reaction does not depend on light.

→ In the dark reaction, the hydrogen of the NADPH is used to combine with CO2 by utilizing ATP energy and to produce glucose.

→ Heterotrophic nutrition involves the intake of complex materials prepared by other organisms.

→ Saprophytes like bread moulds, yeast, mushrooms, etc., break down the food materials outside the body and then absorb them.

→ Some organisms take in whole material and break it down inside their bodies, eg: animals.

→ Some organisms derive nutrition from plants or animals without killing them, eg: Cuscuta, lice, leeches and tapeworms.

→ Amoeba takes food through the projections of the body surface called pseudopodia.

→ In paramoecium, food is moved to a specific spot by the movement of cilia.

→ The parasitic plant Cuscuta (Dodder) absorbs food through haustoria from the body of the host.

→ The process of breaking down complex substances into simple substances with the help of enzymes is called digestion.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ The saliva secreted by three pairs of salivary glands contains an enzyme amylase (ptyalin). It helps in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simple ones.

→ The alimentary canal is a long tube extending from the mouth to the anus.

→ The parts of the human digestive system are the mouth, buccal cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.

→ The food from the mouth to the stomach passes through the oesophagus by wave-like movements called peristaltic movements.

→ Food gets churned with gastric juice and HCl in the stomach.

→ Chyme is the partially broken food in the stomach which is in the form of a soft slimy substance.

→ The pyloric sphincter present at the end of the stomach releases small amounts of chyme into the small intestine.

→ The small intestine is the longest part of the alimentary canal.

→ Bile juice from the liver and pancreatic juice from the pancreas releases into the small intestine.

→ Bile juice helps in converting fats into small globule like forms by a process called emulsification.

→ Pancreatic juice contains trypsin and lipase for digesting proteins and fats respectively.

→ Taking food into the body is called ingestion.

→ Transport of the products of digestion from the intestine into the blood is called absorption.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ Maximum absorption of food takes place by finger-like projections called villi in the small intestine.

→ The passage of undigested material from the body by the way of the anus is called defecation.

→ Vomiting is the body’s method of throwing out unwanted or harmful substances from the stomach.

→ Reverse peristaltic movements occur in the stomach and oesophagus during vomiting.

→ Indigestion is caused by stomach and duodenal ulcers.

→ Intake of fibre rich food avoids constipation.

→ Our diet should be a balanced diet that contains proper amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, mineral salts and fats.

→ Eating food that does not have one or more than one nutrient in the required amount is known as malnutrition.

→ Malnutrition is of three types

  1. Calorie malnutrition
  2. Protein malnutrition and
  3. Protein calorie malnutrition.

→ Kwashiorkor disease occurs due to protein deficiency.

→ Marasmus is a disease due to a deficiency of both proteins and calories.

→ Obesity occurs due to overeating and excess energy intake.

→ Vitamins are micronutrients required in small quantities. They are water-soluble (B complex, Vitamin C) and fat-soluble (Vitamin A, D, E and K). Eg: Animals,

→ Glucose: Simple carbohydrates formed at the end of the dark reaction in photosynthesis. It is oxidised to produce energy during respiration.

→ Starch: Et is a polysaccharide that is present only in plants. It forms the bulk of our food. Starches are extracted commercially from wheat, potatoes, rice, etc.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ Cellulose: Cellulose is a polysaccharide, that helps in forming the cell wall of plants, algae, fungi. It is digested by animals but not by human beings. It helps in the smooth movement of food in the alimentary canal.

→ Chloroplast: It is a plastid present only in the plant cells containing chlorophyll and pigments.

→ Grana: These are the stacked sac-like structures formed by the third membrane of the chloroplast. Light reaction of photosynthesis takes place in it.

→ Stroma: The zone between the Intergranum lamellae of a chloroplast filled with fluid. The dark reaction of photosynthesis occurs in the stroma.

→ Light reaction: Reaction of photosynthesis that occurs in the presence of light in the grana of the chloroplast.

→ Dark reaction: Reaction that takes place in absence of light or light-independent reaction. They occur in the stroma of the chloroplast.

→ Heterotrophic nutrition: It is a type of nutrition in which an organism cannot make its own food from simple inorganic materials like CO2, water and depends on other organisms for its food.

→ Parasitic nutrition: It is a type of heterotrophic nutrition ¡n which organisms derive their food from the body of other living organisms without killing them.

→ Haustoria: A specialized branch of the organ of a parasite, which penetrates the host tissue and absorbs nutrients and water.

→ Alimentary canal: It is the part of the digestive system which is like a long tube extending from mouth to anus.

→ Salivary glands: Glands that secrete saliva are called salivary glands. These are three pairs. Two pairs are located at the side of the jaw and below the tongue and one pair is located in the palate.

→ Peristaltic movements: The wave-like movements produced by the contraction and relaxation of the muscles present in the food pipe.

→ Amylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes starch or glycogen to sugars.

→ Palm: The other name for salivary amylase.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ Penh: It is an enzyme produced by gastric glands in the stomach that helps to digest proteins in the food.

→ Chyme: It is the partially digested food in the stomach. Proteins and carbohydrates are broken down to some extent.

→ Sphincter: Ring like muscles present at the end of the stomach and allows a small amount of food into the small intestine.

→ Digestion: The process of breaking down complex substañces into simple substances SO2 that can be used by the body with the help of enzymes is called digestion.

→ Pancreas: It is a mixed gland. It secretes pancreatic juice which contains enzymes like trypsin and amylase. This gland lies between the spleen and duodenum.

→ Enzymes: These are a group of chemical substances which cause biochemical reactions. Helps in the conversion of complex food materials into simple substances.

→ Villi: These are finger-like projections formed from the intestinal wall. The digested food material ¡s absorbed by villi. They increase the area of absorption.

→ Bile Juice: Digestive juice secreted by the liver. Enzymes are absent in it. It helps in the breakdown of fat molecules by a process called emulsification.

→ Lipase: An enzyme that converts fats to fatty acids and glycerol. It is present in the pancreatic juice.

→ Fat: It is made up of fatty acids and glycerol. It will be used for the production of energy.

→ Liver: The largest gland in the body. It produces bile juice.

→ Emulsification: Conversion of fats into small globule like forms with the help of the bile juice is called emulsification.

→ Kwashiorkor: It ¡s a disease due to protein deficiency.

→ Marasmus: This is a disease due to a deficiency of both proteins and calories.

→ Apparent: Easily noticed or understood.

→ Nutrition: It is the procurement or intake of nutrients.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ Saprophytes: Organisms that obtain food from dead and decaying plants and animal bodies. e.g.: Bacteria and fungi.

→ Carbohydrates: These are energy-rich complex organic materials formed with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are also called sugars.

→ Proteins: These are made up of amino acids which are used for growth and development.

→ Extinguish: To make a fire or light stop burning or shining.

→ Suffocate: To die or make someone die by preventing them from breathing.

→ Hypothesis: An idea that is suggested as a possible way of explaining a situation when you do not definitely know about it.

→ Pellets: A small ball of any soft substance.

→ Ingenious: It is the result of clever thinking and new ideas and works well.

→ Incense stick: A substance that produces a pleasant smell when you burn it.

→ Succession: A number of people or things that follow each other in time or order.

→ Access: A way of entering or reaching a place.

→ Strategy: A plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose.

→ Lice: A small insect that lives on the bodies of humans and animals.

→ Ingest: Taking food into our body usually by swallowing.

→ Root rot: Decay or decomposition of the root.

→ Tangle: A twisted mass of thread, hair, etc., that cannot be easily separated.

→ Mastication: Chewing food or biting food into small pieces in our mouth.

→ Churn: Tostir,beat,mix.

→ Defecation: it is sending out solid waste food from our body through our bowels.

→ Roughages: These are fibres of either carbohydrates or proteins. They keep a person healthy by keeping the bowels working and moving other food quickly through the body.

AP Board Solutions AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition

→ Riddle: A question that is difficult to understand and that has a surprising answer.

→ Bilious: Feeling as if we might vomit, creating an unpleasant effect.

→ Seldom: Rarely, not often.

→ Constipation: The condition of being unable to get rid of waste materials from bowels easily.

→ Obesity: This condition occurs due to overeating and excess energy intake.
AP Board 10th Class Biology Notes Chapter 1 Nutrition 3

→ C.B. Van Neil (1897 – 1985):

  • C. B. Van Neil was a Dutch American microbiologist.
  • He made key discoveries explaining the chemistry of photosynthesis.
  • By studying purple sulphur bacteria and green bacteria, he was the first scientist to demonstrate that photosynthesis is a light-dependent redox reaction, in which hydrogen from an oxidizable compound reduces carbon dioxide to cellular materials.
  • His discovery predicted that H2O is the hydrogen donor in green plants photosynthesis and is oxidised to

AP State Board Notes for 10th, 9th, 8th, 7th, 6th Class All Subjects

AP State Board Syllabus Notes for 10th, 9th, 8th, 7th, 6th Class All Subjects

AP State Board 10th Class Notes

AP State Board 9th Class Notes

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AP State Board 7th Class Notes

AP State Board 6th Class Notes

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AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు

Students can go through AP Board 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు to understand and remember the concept easily.

AP Board 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు

→ కొలతలను పోల్చుటకు ఉపయోగించే ఏ ప్రామాణిక కొలతనైనా ప్రమాణం అంటారు.

→ ప్రమాణాలను భౌతిక రాశుల పరిమాణాలకు కుడివైపున రాయాలి. ఉదాహరణకు 2 కి.గ్రా., 100 గ్రా.

→ ముఖ్యమైన ప్రాథమిక రాశులు ద్రవ్యరాశి, పొడవు, కాలం.

→ ప్రాథమిక రాశులు అనేవి మరే ఇతర పరిమాణాలలోనూ వ్యక్తపరచడానికి వీలులేని భౌతికరాశులు.

→ ప్రాథమిక రాశులను మూలరాశులు అని కూడా అంటారు.

→ శాస్త్రవేత్తలు FPS, CGS, MKS వంటి వివిధ రకాల కొలత పద్ధతులను అవసరాలకు అనుగుణంగా వినియోగించడానికి వీలుగా అభివృద్ధి చేశారు.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు

→ FPS పద్దతి : అడుగు, పౌండ్, సెకను.

→ CGS పద్ధతి : సెంటీమీటరు, గ్రాము, సెకను.

→ MS పద్దతి : మీటరు, కిలోగ్రాము, సెకను.

→ SI పద్ధతి అనగా అంతర్జాతీయ ప్రమాణాల పద్ధతి.

→ ద్రవ్యరాశి, పొడవు మరియు కాలం భౌతిక రాశులకు మరికొన్ని భౌతిక రాశులను SI పద్దతితో జోడించారు.

→ SI పద్ధతిలో పరిమాణాలు :
పొడవు -మీటరు (m)
ద్రవ్యరాశి – కిలోగ్రాము (kg)
కాలం – సెకను (s)
విద్యుత్ – ఆంపియర్ (A)
కాంతి తీవ్రత – కాండెలా (Cd)
పదార్థ పరిమాణం – మోల్ (mol)
ఉష్ణోగ్రత – కెల్విన్ (k)
సమతల కోణం – రేడియన్ (rad)

→ ఏ రాశులైతే ప్రాథమిక రాశులను గుణించడం లేదా భాగించడం లేదా రెండూ చేయడం ద్వారా ఏర్పడతాయో వాటిని ‘ఉత్పన్న రాశులు’ అంటారు.

→ వేగం, వడి, వైశాల్యం, ఘనపరిమాణం, సాంద్రత, త్వరణం, బలం, పీడనం మొదలగునవి ఉత్పన్న రాశులు.

→ ప్రాథమిక ప్రమాణాల నుండి ఉత్పన్నమయ్యేవే ఉత్పన్న ప్రమాణాలు.

→ కొన్ని ఉత్పన్న ప్రమాణాలకు ఉదాహరణలు :
వైశాల్యం – m²
ఘనపరిమాణం – m³
వడి – m/s
వేగం – m/s
త్వరణం – m/s²
AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు 1

→ విలువలను పోల్చినపుడు భౌతికరాశుల ప్రమాణాలను ఒకే ‘కొలత పద్దతి’ లోకి మార్చి పోల్చాలి.
ఉదాహరణకు : 1500 m మరియు 1.5 km లను పోల్చడానికి km లను m లోకి మార్చాలి.
అపుడు 1500 m = 1500 m
1.5 km = 1500m
అనగా రెండు విలువలు సమానం.

→ 1000 m = 1 km
1000 ను ‘మీటరు’కు పూర్వపదం (Prefix) మరియు దీనిని ‘kilo’ అని పిలుస్తారు.

→ 1 km/hr = \(\frac{5}{18}\) m/s

→ శూన్యంలో కాంతి \(\frac{1}{299792458}\) సెకన్లో ప్రయాణించిన దూరమే ఒక మీటరు పొడవు.

→ ప్రమాణాలు రాయడానికి కొన్ని నియమాలను పాటించాలి.

→ గ్రాఫు అనగా రెండు రాశుల మధ్య సంబంధాన్ని తెలియజేసే పటం.

→ గ్రాఫును గీయడానికి స్వతంత్ర రాశి మరియు ఆధారిత రాశులను తీసుకుంటారు.

→ సాధారణంగా స్వతంత్ర రాశి విలువలు ప్రయోగంలో మనచేత నియంత్రించబడతాయి లేదా నిర్ణయింపబడతాయి. ఆధారిత రాశుల విలువలు స్వతంత్ర రాశులలోని మార్పులకు అనుగుణంగా మార్పుకు లోనవుతాయి.

→ గ్రాఫు పేపర్ లో అడ్డంగా (క్షితిజ సమాంతరంగా) గల మందపాటి రేఖను X – అక్షం అని అంటారు.

→ గ్రాఫు పేపర్ లో నిలువుగా (X – అక్షానికి లంబంగా) ఉన్న మందపాటి రేఖను Y – అక్షం అని అంటారు.

→ స్వతంత్ర రాశిని X – అక్షం మీద, ఆధారిత రాశిని Y – అక్షం మీద తీసుకోవాలి.

→ గరిష్ట మరియు కనిష్ట విలువల మధ్య తేడాను ‘వ్యాప్తి’ అంటారు.
వ్యాప్తి = పెద్ద విలువ – చిన్న విలువ.
AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు 2

→ అక్షాలను వాటిపై తీసుకున్న భౌతిక రాశుల పేర్లతో సూచించాలి. భౌతికరాశిని వాటి ప్రమాణాలతో సహా రాయాలి.

→ (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3), …… వలె తీసుకున్న విలువలను దత్తాంశ బిందువులు అంటారు.

→ గ్రాఫు సరళరేఖ వలె ఉంటే అది సరళరేఖా గ్రాఫు.

→ గ్రాఫు వక్రంగా ఉంటే అది వక్రరేఖా గ్రాఫు.

→ సరళరేఖ, వక్రరేఖా గ్రాఫులను ‘రేఖా గ్రాఫులు’ అని అంటారు.

→ హుక్ సూత్రం : స్ప్రింగ్ లో సాగుదల దానికి వేలాడదీసిన ద్రవ్యరాశికి అనులోమానుపాతంలో ఉంటుంది. స్ప్రింగ్ సాగుదల మరియు ద్రవ్యరాశి గ్రాఫు సరళరేఖా గ్రాఫు. ఈ సరళరేఖా గ్రాఫు స్ప్రింగ్ సాగుదల మరియు ద్రవ్యరాశి మధ్య అనులోమానుపాత సంబంధాన్ని సూచిస్తుంది.

→ అనులోమానుపాత నియమం : రెండు రాశులు అనులోమానుపాతంలో ఉండాలంటే క్రింది నిబంధనలను పాటించాలి.

  1. ప్రారంభ విలువలు ‘0’గా ఉండాలి.
  2. ఏ జత విలువల నిష్పత్తిని లెక్కించినా స్థిరంగా ఉండాలి.
  3. ఒక రాశి విలువ పెరుగుతూ ఉంటే రెండవ రాశి విలువ కూడా పెరుగుతూ ఉండాలి.

→ విలోమానుపాత నియమం : రెండు రాశులు విలోమానుపాతంలో ఉండాలంటే అవి క్రింది నిబంధనలను పాటించాలి.

  1. ఒక రాశి విలువ ‘0’ గా ఉండాలి. రెండో రాశి విలువను నిర్వచించలేము. అనగా అనంతంగా చెప్పవచ్చును.
  2. ఏ జత విలువల లబ్దం లెక్కించినా విలువ స్థిరంగా ఉండాలి.
  3. ఒక రాశి విలువ పెరుగుతూ ఉంటే రెండవ రాశి విలువ తగ్గుతూ ఉండాలి.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు 3
పీడనం, ఘనపరిమాణం గ్రాఫు రావలయం ఆకారంలో ఉంటుంది.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు 4

→ వాలుని ‘m’ తో సూచిస్తారు.

→ సరళరేఖావాలు కోణంతో (X – అక్షంతో చేసే కోణం) పాటు పెరుగుతుంది.

→ X – అక్షం విలువ సున్నా.

→ వాలును x, y నిరూపకాలతో గాని, సరళరేఖ X – అక్షంతో చేసే కోణంతో గాని నిర్ధారిస్తారు.

→ వక్రరేఖా గ్రాఫు అనంతమైన వాలులు కలిగి ఉంటుంది.

→ వక్రతలానికి స్పర్శరేఖ గీయడం ద్వారా స్పర్శబిందువు వద్ద వాలును కనుగొనవచ్చును.

→ Y మరియు X – అక్షాల భౌతికరాశుల నిష్పత్తి వాలును సూచించును.

→ Y మరియు X – అక్షాల భౌతికరాశుల లబ్దం గ్రాఫు వైశాల్యాన్ని సూచించును.

→ ప్రమాణం (Unit) : కొలతలను పోల్చుటకు ఉపయోగించే ఏ ప్రామాణిక కొలతనైనా ప్రమాణం’ అంటారు.

→ ప్రాథమిక రాశులు (Fundamental Quantities) : ప్రాథమిక రాశులు అనేవి మరే ఇతర పరిమాణాలలోనూ వ్యక్తపరచడానికి వీలులేని భౌతిక రాశులు.

→ మూలరాశులు : ప్రాథమిక రాశులనే మూలరాశులు అని కూడా అంటారు.

→ FPS : అడుగు (Foot), పౌండు (Pound), సెకను (Second)

→ CGS : సెంటీమీటరు, గ్రాము, సెకను

→ MKS : మీటరు, కిలోగ్రాము, సెకను

→ SI పద్ధతి : అంతర్జాతీయ ప్రమాణాల పద్ధతి

→ ఉత్పన్న రాశులు : ఏ రాశులైతే ప్రాథమిక రాశులను గుణించడం, లేదా భాగించడం లేదా రెండూ చేయడం ద్వారా ఏర్పడతాయో వాటిని ‘ఉత్పన్న రాశులు (derived quantities)’ అంటారు.

→ కొన్ని మూలరాశులు : పొడవు, ద్రవ్యరాశి, కొలం, విద్యుత్ ప్రవాహం, కాంతి తీవ్రత, పదార్థ పరిమాణం, ఉష్ణం, సమతల కోణం మొదలగునవి.

→ కొన్ని ఉత్పన్నరాశులు : వైశాల్యం, ఘనపరిమాణం, సాంద్రత, వేగం, త్వరణం, బలం, పీడనం.

→ ప్రాథమిక ప్రమాణాలు : మీటరు, కిలోగ్రాం . సెకను, ఆంపియర్, కాండెలా, మోల్, కెల్విన్, రేడియన్.

→ ఉత్పన్న ప్రమాణాలు : ప్రాథమిక ప్రమాణాల నుండి ఉత్పన్నం చేయబడే ప్రమాణాలను ఉత్పన్న ప్రమాణాలు అంటారు.

→ మీటరు : శూన్యంలో కాంతి \(\frac{1}{299792458}\) సెకన్లలో ప్రయాణించిన దూరమే ఒక మీటరు.

→ గ్రాఫు : గ్రాపు అనగా రెండు రాశుల మధ్య సంబంధాన్ని తెలియజేసే పటం.

→ స్వతంత్ర రాశి : గ్రాపు గీసినపుడు మనచేత నియంత్రింపబడు లేదా నిర్ణయింపబడు రాశులను స్వతంత్ర రాశులు అందురు.

→ ఆధారిత రాశి : స్వతంత్ర రాశులలోని మార్పులకు అనుగుణంగా మార్పుకు లోనవు రాశులను ఆధారిత రాశులు అంటారు.

→ చదరాలు / గళ్ళు : గ్రాపు పేపరు పై నిలువుగా మరియు అడ్డంగా ఉన్న గీతల కలయిక వలన చదరపు సెంటీమీటరు/చదరపు మిల్లీమీటరు చదరాలు లేదా గళ్ళు ఏర్పడతాయి.

→ X – అక్షం : గ్రాఫు పేపర్ లో అడ్డంగా (క్షితిజ సమాంతరంగా) గల మందపాటి రేఖను X – అక్షం అంటారు.

→ Y – అక్షం : గ్రాపు పేపర్ లో నిలువుగా (లంబంగా ) గల మందపాటి రేఖను Y – అక్షం అంటారు.

→ వ్యాప్తి : అతి పెద్ద విలువ – అతి చిన్న విలువ.

→ స్కేలు : అక్షాల పై తీసుకున్న విలువల వ్యవధిని ‘స్కేలు’ అంటారు.
AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు 5

→ దత్తాంశ బిందువులు : గ్రాపులో బిందువులుగా గుర్తించడానికి (x, y) రూపంలో తీసుకున్న విలువల జతలను దత్తాంశ బిందువులు అని అంటారు.

→ వక్రరేఖా గ్రాఫు : గ్రాపురేఖ వక్రాకారములో ఉన్న గ్రాపును వక్రరేఖ గ్రాపు అని అంటారు.

→ సరళరేఖా గ్రాఫు : గ్రాపురేఖ సరళరేఖ అయితే ఆ గ్రాఫును సరళరేఖా గ్రాపు అని అంటారు.

→ సరళరేఖ వాలు : గ్రాపులో y – నిరూపకాలలో మార్పు, నిరూపకాలలో మార్పుల నిష్పత్తినే సరళరేఖ వాలు’ అని అంటారు.

→ వాలు :
AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు 6

→ గ్రాఫు యొక్క వైశాల్యం : Y – అక్షం పై గల భౌతికరాశి మరియు X – అక్షం పై గల భౌతికరాశుల లబ్దమే గ్రాపు యొక్క వైశాల్యం.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు 7
AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 12th Lesson ప్రమాణాలు మరియు గ్రాఫులు 8

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని

Students can go through AP Board 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని to understand and remember the concept easily.

AP Board 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని

→ ధ్వని ఒక శక్తి స్వరూపము.

→ ధ్వని గ్రహణ సంవేదనను కలుగజేస్తుంది.

→ ధ్వని గాలిలో అణువులు ముందుకు, వెనుకకు కదలడం ద్వారా ప్రయాణించి చెవిని చేరి గ్రహణ సంవేదనను కలిగించును. – పైథాగరస్

→ న్యూటన్ మొట్టమొదటగా గాలిలో ధ్వని ప్రసారాన్ని పూర్తిగా వివరించాడు.

→ కంపించే వస్తువులు ధ్వనిని ఉత్పత్తి చేస్తాయి.

→ శృతిదండం ఒక శబ్ద అనునాదకము.

→ శృతిదండమును “జాన్ఫోర్” అనే సంగీత విద్వాంసుడు కనుగొన్నాడు.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని

→ ధ్వని ప్రసారం జరిగే మాధ్యమాన్ని యానకం అంటాము.

→ ధ్వని యానకంలో అనుదైర్ఘ్య తరంగాల రూపంలో ప్రయాణిస్తుంది.

→ అనుదైర్య తరంగంలో వరుసగా సంపీడన, విరళీకరణాలు ఏర్పడతాయి.

→ యానకంలో కణాలు తరంగ చలనదిశలోనే కంపిస్తే అనగా తరంగ చలనదిశకు సమాంతరంగా కంపిస్తే ఆ తరంగాలను అనుదైర్ఘ్య తరంగాలు అంటారు.

→ అనుదైర్ఘ్య తరంగాలు యానకం సాంద్రతలో మార్పునకు కారణమవుతాయి.

→ యానకంలో కణాలు తరంగ చలనదిశకు లంబంగా కంపిస్తే ఆ తరంగాలను తిర్యక్ తరంగాలు అంటారు.

→ తిర్యక్ తరంగాలు యానకపు ఆకృతిలో మార్పునకు కారణమవుతాయి. ఒక తరంగ స్వభావాన్ని వివరించుటలో తరంగ దైర్ఘ్యం, కంపన పరిమితి, పౌనఃపున్యము మరియు తరంగ వేగాలు ముఖ్య పాత్ర వహిస్తాయి.

→ తిర్యక్ తరంగంలో ఒకదాని తర్వాత ఒకటిగా శృంగము, ద్రోణులు ఏర్పడతాయి.

→ రెండు వరుస సంపీడనాల లేదా విరళీకరణాల మధ్య దూరాన్ని ధ్వని తరంగపు తరంగ దైర్యం అంటాము.

→ సాంద్రత-దూరం గ్రాలో రెండు వరుస శృంగాల లేదా ద్రోణుల మధ్య దూరంను తరంగ దైర్ఘ్యం అంటారు.

→ తరంగ దైర్యానికి S.I ప్రమాణం మీటరు. యానకంలో తరంగం ప్రయాణించేటప్పుడు యానకం సాంద్రత (లేదా) పీడనంలో కలిగిన అత్యధిక మార్పును కంపన పరిమితి అంటారు.

→ కంపన పరిమితికి ప్రమాణాలు – కి.గ్రా/మీ³, పాస్కల్, మీటరు.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని

→ యానకం సాంద్రత లేదా పీడనం ఒక డోలనం చేయడానికి పట్టే కాలాన్ని ధ్వని తరంగపు ఆవర్తన కాలం అంటారు.

→ ప్రమాణ కాలంలో యానకపు సాంద్రత, ఒక నిర్దిష్ట ప్రదేశంలో చేసే డోలనాల సంఖ్యను పౌనఃపున్యం అంటారు.

→ పౌనఃపున్యంకు ప్రమాణాలు హెర్ట్.

→ ఒక తరంగంపై గల ఏదైనా ఒక బిందువు (అనగా సంపీడన లేదా విరళీకరణాల వంటి) ప్రమాణ కాలంలో ప్రయాణించిన దూరాన్ని తరంగ వేగం అంటారు.

→ ధ్వనివేగం, పౌనఃపున్యం, తరంగ పొడవుల మధ్య సంబంధం v = ηλ.

→ 20°C వద్ద పొడిగాలిలో ధ్వ నివేగం 343.2 మీ/సె. లేదా 1236 కి.మీ/గం.

→ ధ్వని వాయువుల్లో కంటే ద్రవపదార్థాలలో మరియు ఘనపదార్థాలలో ఎక్కువ వేగంగా ప్రయాణించును.

→ 20°C వద్ద నీటిలో ధ్వని వేగం గాలిలో ధ్వని వేగానికి 4.3 రెట్లు అధికము.

→ ఘనపదార్థాల (ఇనుము)లో ధ్వని వేగం గాలిలో కంటే 15 రెట్లు అధికంగా ఉంటుంది.

→ ధ్వనులను సంగీతస్వరాలు మరియు చప్పుళ్ళుగా విభజించవచ్చును.

→ వినుటకు ఇంపుగా ఉన్న శబ్దాలను సంగీతస్వరాలని, కఠోరంగా ఉన్న శబ్దాలను చప్పుళ్ళు అని అంటారు.

→ సంగీతస్వరంను నిర్ణయించే అభిలక్షణాలు :
i) పిచ్ (స్థాయి) ii) తీవ్రత iii) నాణ్యత

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని

→ కీచు, బొంగురు స్వరాల మధ్య తేడాను తెలిపే లక్షణాన్ని పిచ్ అంటారు.

→ చెవిపై కలిగించబడిన గ్రహణ సంవేదన స్థాయిని శబ్ద తీవ్రత అంటాము.

→ వివిధ సంగీతవాయిద్యాల నుండి ఉత్పత్తి అయిన స్వరాల మధ్య తేడాని గుర్తించుటకు మనకు ఉపయోగపడే శబ్బ లక్షణమే నాణ్యత.

→ శ్రోతకు అసలు ధ్వని వినబడిన 0.1 సెకన్లలోపు వినపడే పరావర్తన ధ్వనిని ప్రతినాదం అంటారు.

→ ధ్వని తరంగాల పౌనఃపున్య శ్రవ్య అవధి 20 Hz నుండి 20 KHz.

→ 20 Hz ల కంటే తక్కువ పౌనఃపున్యం గల ధ్వనులను పరశ్రావ్యాలు అంటాము.

→ 20 KHz ల కంటే ఎక్కువ పౌనఃపున్యం గల ధ్వనులను అతిధ్వనులు అంటాము.

→ సోనార్ అనగా సౌండ్ నావిగేషన్ అండ్ రేంజింగ్.

→ శృతిదండం : ఇది ఉక్కుతో చేయబడిన U-ఆకారపు శబ్ద అనునాదకపు కడ్డీ.

→ అనుదైర్ఘ్య తరంగం : ఒక యానకంలోని కణాలు తరంగ చలన దిశలోనే కంపించుట వలన ఏర్పడిన తరంగము.

→ తిర్యక్ తరంగం : ఒక యానకంలోని కణాలు తరంగ చలన దిశకు లంబంగా కంపించుట వలన ఏర్పడిన తరంగము.

→ సంపీడనం : ధ్వని తరంగ ప్రసారంలో అధిక సాంద్రతగల ప్రాంతము.

→ విరళీకరణం : ధ్వని తరంగ ప్రసారంలో అల్ప సాంద్రత గల ప్రాంతము.

→ శృంగము : తిర్యక్ తరంగ ప్రసారంలో ఉబ్బెత్తైన ప్రాంతము.

→ ద్రోణి : తిర్యక్ తరంగ ప్రసారంలో లోతైన ప్రాంతము.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని

→ తరంగ దైర్ఘ్యం : రెండు వరుస సంపీడనాలు లేదా విరళీకరణాల మధ్యదూరం.

→ కంపన పరిమితి : యానకంలోని కణాల స్థానభ్రంశంలో ఏర్పడే అత్యధిక మార్పు.

→ పౌనఃపున్యం : ధ్వని తరంగపు యానకపు సాంద్రత ప్రమాణ కాలంలో చేసే డోలనాల సంఖ్య.

→ పిచ్ (కీచుదనం) : కీచు మరియు బొంగురు స్వరాల మధ్య భేదము.

→ ధ్వని తీవ్రత : చెవిపై కలిగించబడిన గ్రహణ సంవేదన స్థాయి.

→ ధ్వని వాణ్యత : వివిధ ధ్వనుల మధ్యగల స్వర భేదము.

→ ప్రతిధ్వని : పరావర్తనమయ్యే నిజధ్వని యొక్క రూపము.

→ ప్రతినాదం : ధ్వని స్థిరత కంటే తక్కువ సమయంలో పరావర్తనమయ్యే ధ్వని.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని

→ శ్రవ్య అవధి : మానవుడు వినగలిగే ధ్వని హద్దులు.

→ పరశ్రావ్యాలు : శ్రవ్య అవధి కంటే తక్కువ పౌనఃపున్యం గల ధ్వనులు.

→ అతిధ్వనులు : శ్రవ్య అవధి కంటే ఎక్కువ పౌనఃపున్యం గల ధ్వనులు.

→ సోనార్ : సౌండ్ నావిగేషన్ అండ్ రేంజింగ్.

AP 9th Class Physical Science Notes 11th Lesson ధ్వని 1