Students can go through AP Board 7th Class Science Notes 1st Lesson Food for Health to understand and remember the concept easily.
AP Board 7th Class Science Notes 1st Lesson Food for Health
→ The major nutrients in our food are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. In addition, food also contains dietary fibres and water.
→ Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are required in large quantities. Hence, they are called Macronutrients.
→ Minerals and vitamins are required in yery less quantity. So, they are called Micronutrients.
→ Carbohydrates and fats mainly provide energy to our body.
→ Carbohydrates are usually present in the form of starch and sugars in the food.
→ Presence of starch is confirmed by doing iodine test.
→ Starch turns into black – blue in colour when it come in contact with Iodine solution.
→ Benedict’s reagent test confirms the presence of sugars.
→ Proteins are needed for the growth and maintenance of our body.
→ Proteins turn into violet colour when they react with 2% copper sulphate solution and 10% sodium hydroxide solution.
→ Fats turn the white paper translucent (partially transparent).
→ Minerals and vitamins help in protecting our body against diseases.
→ Vitamins are of two basic types :
- Fat soluble vitamins :A, D, E, K.
- Water soluble vitamins : C, B complex.
→ Iodine paper gets discoloured with vitamin C. The substances which made the iodine paper more discoloured contains more vitamin C.
→ Dietary fibres / roughage help in free bowel movement in the digestive tract and prevent the constipation.
→ Water constitutes nearly 2/3 of our body weight. It is essential for many metabolic activities in our body.
→ Balanced diet provides all the nutrients that our body needs, in right quantities, along with adequate amount of roughage and water.
→ Deficiency of one or more nutrients in our food for a long time may cause certain diseases. We eat variety of food in our day to day life.
→ Kwashiorkor, marasmus, anaemia, goitre, beriberi, scurvy, rickets etc. are the well-known deficiency diseases.
→ If the proteins are inadequate in children’s diet for a long time it causes a disease called Kwashiorkor.
→ If the proteins and carbohydrates are not taken adequately for a long time it causes Marasmus disease.
→ If we take food containing too much fats daily, it leads to obesity.
→ Healthy eating habits and hygiene also play a key role in maintaining of health.
→ Junk food leads to health problems hence should be avoided.
→ Carbohydrates : Carbohydrates are a type of macronutrients found in many foods. It provides energy required for our body.
→ Proteins : Proteins are macronutrients needed by our body for growth and maintenance.
→ Fats : Fats are also macronutrients of our food, which are the rich sources of energy.
→ Dietary fibre : Dietary fibre or roughage is a type of carbohydrate that cannot be digested in our body. It prevents constipation.
→ Balanced diet : Balanced diet is the food which contains all the required nutrients in required quantity.
→ Vitamins : The vitamins are natural and essential nutrients, required in small quantities and play a major role in growth, development and keeping us healthy. Generally, we obtain vitamins from plants, animals and microbes. Ex : Retinol, Calciferol etc.
→ Minerals : Minerals in food are also the substances present in food that are required by our body to develop and function properly. We obtain minerals from soil and water in addition to plants and animals. Ex: Sodium, Iron, Flourine etc.
→ Constipation : It refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
→ Obesity : It is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
→ Junk food : Junk food is unhealthy food that is high in calories from sugar or fat, with little dietary fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals, or other important forms of nutritional value.
→ Deficiency diseases : Diseases that are directly or indirectly caused by a lack of essential nutrients in the diet.
→ Goitre : A swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland caused due to Iodine deficiency.
→ Anaemia : It is a medical condition in which the red blood ceil count or the heamoglobin is less than normal.
→ Scurvy : A disease caused by lack of vitamin – C (Ascorbic acid) in the diet.
→ Beriberi : Nutritional disorder caused by deficiency of thiamine (vitamin – B<sub>1</sub>) and characterized by impairment of the nerves and heart.
→ Rickets : It is a skeletal disorder caused by lack of vitamin – D, cab cium, or phosphate.
→ SHP : School Health Programme, a initiation of government of India under Ayushman Bharat to strengthen health promotion and disease prevention intervention.