Students can go through AP State Board 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 3 Production and Employment to understand and remember the concept easily.
AP State Board Syllabus 10th Class Social Studies Notes Chapter 3 Production and Employment
→ People are engaged in different activities to earn their livelihoods.
→ These activities are :
- Agriculture and related activities such as fishing, forestry, mining where nature has a dominant role in the production process.
- Manufacturing processes and other industries, where goods are produced by people using tools or machines and
- Those activities that don’t directly produce a good but provide services that are required in production and other services for people.
→ The good becomes final if it is not used further in producing goods to be sold.
→ Gross Domestic Product is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a particular year.
→ The unpaid work is done mostly by women even today, in India and across the globe. Community, social and personal services comprise Public Administration, Defence, Education, Health, Veterinary activities, Media, Library, Archives, Museums, and other cultural activities, etc.
→ Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate comprise services of Banks, Post-office Savings Accounts, Non-bank Financial Companies, Life Insurance and General Insurance corporations, Services of brokers and Real Estate Companies, etc.
→ The other service sector division comprises trade, hotels, transport, and communication.
→ The situation of underdevelopment where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential.
→ This kind of unemployment is hidden in contrast to someone who does not have a job and is clearly visible as unemployed. Hence it is called ‘disguised unemployment.
→ 92% of workers in India are found in the unorganized sector and only 8% find work in the organized sector.
→ Places of work of organized sector are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations.
→ The unorganized sector is characterized by small and scattered units which have remained largely outside the control of the government.
→ Nearly 80% of rural households in India are in the small and marginal farmer category. During 2004-05, 92% of all workers contributed 50% of GDP whereas only 8% of people had decent employment and contributed 50% of GDP.
→ We should invest in many industries, in both rural and semi-urban areas, so that we are able to produce many more goods and services.
→ We not only have to generate new employment opportunities but also train many workers to work efficiently and with machines.
→ Gross Domestic: It is the value of all final goods and services produced within a Product country during a particular year.
→ Final Goods: The goods become final if they are not used further in producing goods to be sold.
→ Sectoral Goods: The goods produced In three sectors i.e., Agricultural, Industrial and Service sectors.
→ Employment shifts: In 1972-73 the shares of employment in Agricultural, Service and Industrial sectors were 74%, 15% and 11% whereas In 2009-10 they were 53%, 25%, and 22% respectively. This phenomenon is known as the employment shift.
→ Organized sector: Enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have assured work.
→ Unorganized sector: Small and scattered units where Jobs are low-paid and not regular and have remained largely outside the control of the government.
→ Financial year: A period of twelve months over which the accounts and taxes of a company or a person are calculated. For example, April 2017 to March 2018 Is called financial year 201 7-18.
→ Occupation: DIfferent activities In which people are engaged to earn their livelihood.
→ Primary sector: Agriculture and related activities such as farming, fishing, forestry, mining where nature has a dominant role In the production process.
→ Secondary sector: Manufacturing processes and other industries, where goods are produced by people using tools or machines.
→ Service sector: Those activities that don’t directly produce a good but provide services that are required in production and other services for people.
→ Unpaid work: Work done at home like cooking, cleaning, organizing, bringing up children, etc. does not involve In any monetary transaction.
→ Employment: Individuals are gainfully engaged In productive work or service,
→ Unemployment: Individuals are not gainfully employed In any productive work.
→ Underemployment: The state of each one Is doing some work and no one is fully employed.
→ Disguised Unemployment: The situation of under-employment where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential.