AP State Syllabus AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions Chapter 7 Coal and Petroleum
AP State Syllabus 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum
8th Class Physical Science 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum 1 Mark Important Questions and Answers
What are exhaustible resources? Give examples.
The resources which are limited in nature and can be exhausted by human activities are called exhaustible resources, e.g. Coal, petroleum and natural gas.
What are inexhaustible resources? Give examples.
The resources which are unlimited in nature and not likely to be exhausted by human activities are called inexhaustible resources, e.g. Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy.
When and where does petroleum first used?
More than 4000 years ago, asphalt (petroleum product) was used in the construction of walls and towers of Babylon. There are also records from ancient China about shallow wells being dug to get petroleum.
What did our ancestors do with petroleum?
They mainly used petroleum for their wooden boats and waterproof, as a fuel for lamps and in some traditional remedies.
What is the basic difference between coal and charcoal?
Coal used in factories is mined from the earth’s crust. The charcoal is obtained from firewood.
What is meant by fractional distillation?
The separation technique used to separate various components of petroleum is called fractional distillation.
What is carbonisation?
The slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonisation.
Why coal, petroleum and natural gas are called fossil fuels?
They were formed from the dead remains of living organisms (fossils). So these are called fossil fuels.
What is coke and what are its uses?
Coke is a tough, porous and black substance. It is an almost pure form of carbon. Uses:
- Coke is used in the manufacture of steel.
- In the extraction of many metals.
Why petroleum is called black gold?
Due to its great commercial importance petroleum Is called black gold.
What are alternatives to natural gas? Why do not we are using them?
The alternatives for natural gas are coal bed methane and gas hydrates. These are not in commercial production phase due to lack in proper technology.
Can coal, petroleum and natural gas be prepared in the laboratory from dead organisms?
No, their formation is very slow process and conditions for their formation cannot be created in the laboratory.
8th Class Physical Science 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum 2 Marks Important Questions and Answers
How do you obtain various materials we are using in our daily life?
|Material||Method of obtaining it|
|Glass||By melting salt with other materials and then, cooling it rapidly|
|Clay||By mixing the mineral kaolinite with water|
|Wood||From dried up trees|
|Metals||From their respective ores|
What is biodiesel? How would you prepare biodiesel? What is its use?
Biodiesel is one of the biofuel. Which is not toxic and renewable. It is made from the biological ingredients instead of petroleum or crude oil. Biodiesel usually made from the plant oils or animal fat through a series of chemical reactions.
It is used in diesel engines.
What is coal? Explain the process of formation of coal.
Coal is hard and black coloured substance obtained from mines.
The plants in large and dense forests in low lying wet lands got buried under the soil due to natural processes like floods and earthquakes. As more soil deposited over them, the organic matter was compressed. The temperature also rose. As the organic matter sank deeper and deeper, under high temperature and high pressure, the dead plants slowly converted to coal.
What is coal tar and what are its uses?
Coal tar: It is a black coloured thick liquid with an unpleasant smell. It is a mixture of about 200 substances.
Products obtained from the coal tar are used as starting material for various substances like synthetic dyes, drugs, explosives, perfumes, plastics, paints and roofing material. Naphthaleine balls obtained from coal tar used to repel moths and other insects.
What is coal gas and what are its uses?
Coal gas is a gas obtained during the processing of coal to get coke.
- It is used in lighting.
- It is used as fuel in many industries.
What are petrochemicals? What are the uses of petrochemicals?
Answer: The useful substances which are obtained from petroleum and natural gas are called petrochemicals.
They are used in the manufacture of detergents, synthetic fibres (polyester, nylon, acrylic) polythene, etc.
Draw a table showing uses of petrochemicals in various sectors.
|Agricultural sector||Industrial sector||Domestic and other sectors|
|Plastic tubes, case, baskets, storing box, cultivation implements, fertilizers.||Cars, motor boats, communication devices, construction materials, paper industry, belt and straps, tyres.||Medical equipments, apparels like clothes, bedding, socks, furniture, paints, washing liquids, road, fibre, cosmetics, medicines, polishing liquids, etc.|
Why are coal and petroleum so versatile?
Coal consists of mainly carbon while petroleum consists of mixture of compounds called hydrocarbons. These compounds make good starting materials for other compounds based on carbon. Carbon is very versatile and is basis for most of the materials.
Why does the price of petrol go up all the time?
The price of anything depends on how much of it is available and how essential it is. Both coal and petroleum are exhaustible resources but we need them, both as fuel and as starting material for synthesising new compounds. Since supply is limited and becoming more expensive as the demand for petrol increase.
What is natural gas ? What are the advantages of CNG as fuel?
Answer: Natural gas is a very important fossil fuel.
CNG: Natural gas is stored under high pressure as compressed natural gas. Advantages of CNG as fuel:
- CNG is less polluting and it is a cleaner fuel.
- The great advantage of CNG is that it can be used directly for burning in homes and factories where it can be supplied through pipes because CNG travels large distances.
Ramu told Rahim that solar energy is inexhaustible resource then what are the questions raised in the mind of Rahim about solar energy?
- If it is inexhaustible resource of energy why don’t we are using it?
- Whether utilization of solar energy is difficult?
- Whether sophasticated techniques not available for proper use of solar energy at present?
- It is costly to use solar energy for producing electric power?
Explain why petroleum is also called as liquid gold.
- They are many useful substances are obtained from petroleum which are called petrochemicals.
- These are used in the manufacture of detergents, synthetic fibres such as polyester, nylon, acrylic, polythene, etc.
- Due to great commercial importance petroleum is also called liquid gold.
What will happen if fossil fuels like coal and petroleum are completely exhausted?
- Coal and petroleum are the natural resources which are important resources of energy for us.
- Coal is used as a fuel as such in homes and in industry, or it is used to generate electricity at thermal power plants.
- Petroleum products such as petrol and diesel are used as fuels in transport to run scooters, motorcycles, cars, buses, trucks, trains and aeroplanes.
- Kerosene and LPG obtained from petroleum are used as domestic fuels for cooking food.
- Since the industrial revolution, we have been using increasing amount of energy. So we need more energy resource.
So without coal and petroleum products life on the earth is impossible.
Suggest some alternative ways to save the fuel resources. (Or)
What actions are required to meet the future energy needs?
- Do not waste fuel for unnecessary activities.
- The energy should be properly utilized and the wastage should be minimized.
- Usage of bicycle in place of motor vehicles for small distances.
- Using road transport vehicles for travelling larger distances which will minimize fuel consumption.
- The engine of a vehicle thoroughly serviced in order to minimize fuel consumption.
- Alternative sources like solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy are more utilized.
Burning fuels releases carbon dioxide , a green house gas, which causes climate changes and leads to global warming. Collect information about this through newspapers, magazines, etc. and prepare report.
i) Drastic increase in the emission of CO2 within last 30 years caused by burning of fossil fuels has been identified as the major reason for the change of temperature in atmosphere.
ii) Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps the reflect sunlight and re-emitt towards earth which is causing increase of earth temperature what we call as global warming.
Describe characteristics and uses of coke.
- It is tough, porous and black substance.
- It is almost pure form of carbon.
- Coke is obtained by heating soft coal in the absence or little supply of air.
- It is used in the manufacture of steel and extraction of many metals.
8th Class Physical Science 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum 4 Marks Important Questions and Answers
Is petroleum exhaustible? Explain.
- If we see the history of petroleum production, from 1859 to 1969, the total production of oil was 227 billion barrels.
- 50% of this total was produced during the first 100 years, while the next 50% was extracted in just ten years.
- Today our consumption rate of oil is far excess that of the rate of its formation.
- Earth take more than one thousand years to form the oil that we consume in one day.
- By about 2015, we would have consumed half of the total reserves of the oil.
- It would become more and more difficult to extract oil in future.
So petroleum is exhaustible.
Draw a diagram showing existence of various fuels like natural gas, petroleum in earth crust.
Collect information about places where we get coal, petroleum and natural gas in India and mark the places on outline map of India.
Coal: Jharia, Chandrapura, Bokaro, Giridih (Jarkhand), Ranigunj and Asansol (West Bengal), Singrauli (M.P.), Korba (Chhattisgarh), Singareni (A.P.) : Talcher and Rampur Himgir (Odisa) and Chand coal field (Maharashtra).
Petroleum : Digboi, Hugrijan, Moran, Naharkatiya, Sibsagar, Rudrasagar and Badarpur (Asom), Bombay High (Maharashtra), Ankleshwar, Kosamba, Kalol, Mehsana, Navagam and Dholka (Gujarat), Krishna and Godavari river basins (A.P.)
Natural gas: Cambay and Ankleshwar fields (Gujarat) and Bombay High (Maharashtra), Coastal Andhra Pradesh.
8th Class Physical Science 7th Lesson Coal and Petroleum Important Questions and Answers
Write any two uses of petrochemicals in our daily life.
Uses: They are used in the manufacture of detergents, synthetic fibres (polyester, nylon, acrylic) polythene, etc.
It is necessary to save the energy resources like petroleum and natural gas. Write a slogan about this to create awareness among people.
- ‘Save petrol and save future’.
- ‘Save fuel and save earth’.
Petroleum is a complex mixture. Write the technique to separate its components.
The technique to separate petroleum components is ‘fractional distillation’.
Write any two uses of Activated Carbon in our daily life.
Uses of Activated Carbon:
- Activated Carbon is used to purify liquids.
- It is used to treat many types of oral poisonings.
Assume that you are a driver, what measures do you take to save petrol?
Engine must be stopped in the traffic signals or in heavy traffic.
The following table shows the total power shortage percentage in India from 1994-1997. Observe the data and give the answers to the following questions.
i. In which year the shortage percentage of power is least?
ii. Between which two years the shortage percentage difference is more?
iii. In which year the shortage percentage of power is maximum?
iv. Make a comment on shortage percentage of power between 1994-95.
ii. Between 1996 and 1997
iv. Shortage percentage is decreased by 0.3 in between 1994 – 95.