Students can go through AP State Board 8th Class Physical Science Notes Chapter 7 Coal and Petroleum to understand and remember the concept easily.
AP State Board Syllabus 8th Class Physical Science Notes Chapter 7 Coal and Petroleum
→ Natural resources can be classified into exhaustible and inexhaustible resources.
→ Fossil fuels are formed from the dead remains of living organisms under the earth over millions of years.
→ Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are fossil fuels.
→ Coke, coal tar, and coal gas are the products of coal.
→ Petroleum is formed from the remains of tiny organisms called plankton.
→ Petroleum gas, petrol, diesel, kerosene, paraffin wax, lubricating oil are obtained by refining petroleum.
→ Natural gas is found sometimes along with petroleum and sometimes without petroleum.
→ The useful substances which are obtained from petroleum and natural gas are called petrochemicals.
→ Excess use of fossil fuels causes air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and many health problems.
→ Fossil fuels resources are very limited. We should think of alternatives.
→ Advanced science and technology have changed our lives.
→ Natural resources: The resources obtained from nature are called natural resources.
→ Exhaustible Resources: The resources which are limited in nature and can be exhausted by human activities are called exhaustible resources.
→ Inexhaustible resources: The resources which are unlimited ¡n nature and not likely to be exhausted by human activities are called inexhaustible resources.
→ Petroleum: Petroleum ¡s o complex mixture mainly consists of hydrocarbons.
→ Fractional distillation: It is one type of distillation in which fractionating columns are used to separate a mixture of compounds.
→ Natural gas: Natural gas ¡s a very important fossil fuel.
→ CNG: Natural gas is stored under high pressure is called compressed natural gas.
→ Coke: It is a tough, porous, black in color and purest form of carbon substance.
→ Coal gas: The gas obtained during the processing of coal to get a coke.
→ Coal tar: It is a black colored thick liquid with an unpleasant smell
→ Carbonization: Theslowprocessofconvertion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization.
→ Plankton: The tiny organisms found in the bottom of seas and oceans.
→ Fossil fuels: The fuels formed from the dead remains of living organisms are called fossil fuels.
→ Petrochemicals: The substances obtained from petroleum and natural gas are coiled petrochemicals.
→ Petroleum refinery: The process of separating the various constituents fractions of petroleum is petroleum refinery.
→ Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867):
- He was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
- His discoveries include those ûf electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and electrolysis.
- As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of a bunsen burner.