AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Important Questions Chapter 20 Post – War World and India.
AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Important Questions 20th Lesson Post – War World and India
10th Class Social 20th Lesson Post – War World and India 1 Mark Important Questions and Answers
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund.
Who formulated the ‘NATO’, the military alliance?
United States of America / America.
Why do you think the cooperation between India and Bangladesh is vital for both countries?
- Both the countries have cooperated on the economic front and river water.
- Bangladesh Is an integral part of the In¬dian look East Policy’ to link up South Asia via Myanmar and both have cooperation on disaster management.
What is the boundary line between China and India?
Mc Mahon Line is the boundary line between China and India.
Explain the terms bipolarity and unipolarity.
- Under the leadership of USA and USSR, the world divided into two power blocks after World War – II with different ideologies. This situation is called as bipolarity.
- After the collapse of the USSR, only the USA remained as a super power in the world. This situation is called as unipolarity.
What is the non-alignment movement?
The policy followed by newly independent countries after Second World War, without involving in any of the military blocks, following neutrality in international politics.
What is Cold War?
The absence of real fighting as in traditional wars is called the cold war. The cold war characterized by the intense tension between the USA and the USSR during 1945 to 1991.
Write any two objectives of U.N.O.
- Maintains peace and security.
- Improvement of educational and health facilities.
- Protecting human rights.
- Respecting international law
What is Panchsheel?
In 1954 a treaty was held between India and China which incorporated the principles of non-interference in other’s internal affairs and respect for each other’s territorial unity, integrity and sovereignty. These principles are known as Panchsheel.
How was the USSR escaped from the Great Depression?
The USSR escaped from the Great Depression:
- USSR was not integrated with international markets.
- It had a planed economy.
- Maintained a balance between demand and supply.
Observe the following graph and answer the questions ‘a’ and ‘b’.
a) During 1955-2005, which country had the highest number of warheads?
USSR / Russia.
b) What is the reason for decreasing in nuclear stockpiles after 1985?
- Tremendous public pressure.
- Ban on nuclear tests.
What is the aim of “Zionist movement”?
The aim of the Zionist Movement is to unite the Jews spread across the world and to reclaim Palestine their homeland and build a separate state for the Jews.
Write any two principles of Panchasheel.
- Respect for each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
- Non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.
- Non-aggression and settlement of dis-putes with mutual understanding.
- Endeavor to achieve cooperation and mutual respect in international relationships.
- Promoting peaceful coexistence.
Observe the following map and answer questions 14 & 15.
What does the above map tell?
The given map tells about cold war military alliances.
Why is united kingdom called an Island?
United kingdom is called as an Island because it is covered by water on all the sides.
What are the basic principles of the UNO?
The basic principles of the United Nations Organisation are preserving peace, upholding human rights, respecting international law and promoting social progress.
What were the three of the most important processes?
Even as the war-devastated countries rebuilt their economics, the world saw some new processes in place. Three of the most important processes were the establishment of the United Nations, Cold War and Decolonisation.
Who drafted a charter for the formation of the UNO?
The principle Allied countries like Britain, France, the USA, the USSR and China drafted a Charter for the formation of the UNO even as the war drew to an end.
Write the number of members of the UNO.
At the time of its establishment UN had membership of 54 countries and today (2018 ) there are 193 countries.
Which is the main body in the UNO?
The General Assembly.
Who are the permanent members of the Security Council?
China, France, United Kingdom; USSR (now Russia) and USA.
Explain the ‘Veto Power’.
Any decision taken by Council can be vetoed (made invalid or rejected) by the intervention of even anyone of these countries.
The power is given to the permanent members to accept or reject any proposal in the UNO.
Name some third world countries.
Countries emerging from colonial domination like Vietnam, Korea, Angola, and Afghanistan.
Who got independence in 1960 and what happened then?
The Belgian colony in Africa, Congo, got independence in 1960. But its radical communist leader, Patrice Lumumba, was killed in 1961, allegedly at the behest of US spy agency called CIA.
When did Angola become independent?
Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975.
What was the place of the USSR in space race ?
The USSR put the first satellite Sputnik and the first human Yuri Gagarin in space.
Whom did the US send to the moon?
The US sent Neil Armstrong and others to the Moon in 1969.
What were the core concerns of the people of recently de-colonised?
The core concerns of people, especially those who were recently de-colonized like poverty, disease, inequality and colonialism were not addressed by any of these issues of contention.
What does West Asia refer to?
West Asia refers to the region between Europe and Asia. The term Middle East is also used to describe this area.
What was called the ‘Zionist Movement’?
A movement had developed among the Jews called the ‘Zionist Movement’ which called for uniting Jews spread across the world and to reclaim Palestine as their homeland and build a separate state of Jews.
Who are Palestinians?
Palestinians were mostly Arab Muslims.
When and where was the PLO established?
The PLO was established in 1964 in Jordon and added a new dimension by bringing together all different Arab factions. Its aim was to regain the land it lost, without violence.
Why did the US become unpopular?
The US became unpopular because it supported undemocratic regimes in the Middle East so that the oil resources were available to the US and its allies.
What is the main bone of contention between India and Pakistan?
The main bone of contention between the two countries is Kashmir.
Pakistan Occupied Kashmir.
Who was ‘U Thant’?
U Thant was the then Secretary-General of UNO.
What was ‘Mukti Bahini ?
Supporters of Mujibur Rahman organized a liberation struggle in the form of ‘Mukti Bahini’.
Who signed Shimla Agreement?
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
Who fought the Kargil War?
India and Pakistan fought the Kargil war.
When was Bangladesh liberated?
Bangladesh was liberated from Pakistan with the help of Indian troops in 1972.
What is IPKF?
It is the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka.
What is a proxy war?
A war instigated by a major power that does not itself participate.
10th Class Social 20th Lesson Post – War World and India 2 Marks Important Questions and Answers
Observe the following map and answer the questions:
a) Name any two countries of ’NATO’ at the founding (establishment) time.
France and Iceland.
b) Name any two countries which were under the ‘WARSAW’.
Poland and Czekoslovakia.
Read the passage and answer the following questions.
To emphasise the determination for peace, Jawaharlal Nehru formulated his renowned Panchsheel principles :
a. Respect for each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
b. Non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.
c. Non-aggression and settlement of disputes with mutual understanding.
d. Endeavour to achieve cooperation and mutual respect in international relationships.
e. Promoting peaceful co-existence.
i) In between which countries, the Panchsheel was formulated?
India and China.
ii) Mention any two principles of Panchsheel.
- Respect for each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
- Non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.
- Non-aggression and settlement of disputes with mutual understanding.
- Endeavour to achieve co-operation and mutual respect in international relationships.
- Promoting peaceful co-existence.
Read the following paragraph and answer the given questions.
Both USA and USSR were in the possession of nuclear weapons but knew very well neither would be the winner in a nuclear war. Yet, they formed military and strategic alliances – the west formalised its alliances in an organisation known as North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) in 1949. To counter this, Communist nations made similar alliances and signed the Warsaw Pact. In addition to this, U.S. established regional military and strategic alliances like South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO) and Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO).
a) What is the counter Pact to NATO?
b) Name the two regional military and strategic alliances of the USA.
South-East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO).
Read the understand the following text to answer the question given below.
The UN thus started with a twin objective of ensuring lasting peace and human development. At the same time it recognised the autonomy of states and promised not to interfere in any internal affair of a country except in cases mandated by serious human rights violation or threat to world peace.
Comment on the objectives of the UN.
- United Nations Organisation has the objectives of ensuring lasting peace and human development.
- The UN protects the human rights.
- It recognized the autonomy of states and promised.
- Except in extreme conditions UN does not interfere in the internal affairs of any country.
Observe the following Map and answer the questions given below.
A) Write any two countries which are sharing boundary with India on the North-eastern side.
Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh.
B) Mention two countries which are sharing sea-boundary with India.
Give an account of the present status of relations between India and Pakistan.
- The differences regarding the Kashmir issue have been still continuing.
- Along with the constant efforts to establish peace, India is trying to maintain good relations in the fields of trade and commerce, sports and tourism with Pakistan.
Analyse the below graph and write your observations.
- After World War II the world has been divided into two main political camps.
- USSR led socialistic camp.
- USA led the capitalist block.
- Both USSR and USA competed for nuclear stockpiles.
- By 1965 US had more nuclear stockpiles.
- USSR competed with USA and increased its stockpiles. By 1985 it has the highest nuclear stockpiles.
- By 2005 both countries reduced their stocks of nuclear weapons.
What do you understand by the Cold War?
Cold War: Ideological differences between America and Russia is called Cold War.
- It is an indirect war. There is no real war.
- It created mutual hatred, misbelief and enmity between Communist Russia and Capitalist USA.
- Both the USA and the USSR were in the possession of nuclear weapons.
- They maintained secret alliances and treaties. Ex: NATO, WARSAW.
- Always they created a tension of war.
- As the rival powers accumulated destructive weapons the world was constantly threatened by a nuclear holocaust.
- People of all countries lived in constant fear of war.
What suggestions do you give to maintain friendly relations with neighbouring countries?
- No country at the present time can afford to exist in isolation.
- From its very inception, they have to maintain a friendly relation with their neighbouring countries.
- Maintain mutual confidence and trust based on the heart to heart.
- Rejects the role of military power and committed to peace.
- Should have greater understanding and cooperation among the people of neighbouring nations.
- Should maintain friendly relations with neighbouring countries and blossom secularism, democracy and freedom here.
- We should share peace and prosperity with the neighbouring countries.
Write briefly about the present relations between India and Pakistan.
Pakistan was separated from India and formed in 1947 as an Independent country. It is still supporting separation movements in Jammu and Kashmir in India. Pakistan is sending extremists to India to create some instability. India accuses that Pakistan is encouraging to send fake notes to India. It is violating the cease-fire conditions and causing for civilians and soldiers’ deaths. Modi visited Pakistan and discussed with the Prime Minister but the problem is not solved. India answered with surgical strikes. It was a great loss for Pakistan. I think both countries should sit together and solve the problems to concentrate on development.
Suggest measures for better relations between China and India.
Since 1962 India, China relations are not good and fair.
- Each should respect another country.
- Panchsheel principles should be followed.
- Settle disputes mutually with bilateral discussions.
- Both countries should understand that they lose much more if there would be a war.
Read the map and answer the following questions.
a) Name the countries that did not enter into any of the military alliances.
Sweden, Finland, Switzerland and Ireland were the countries that did notenter into any of the military alliances.
b) State your analysis on the above map.
- Most of the East European countries signed on Warsaw pact.
- Most of the West European countries signed on NATO pact.
How was the USA after World War – II?
The USA suffered less as the war was not fought on its territories. In fact, the Second World War helped the USA grow out of its economic misery caused by the Great Depression. Far from the theatres of war, the industries and agriculture of the USA prospered. This ensured full employment and high productivity in the US during the Second World War. In March 1945, the US President, Harry Truman, said, ‘We have emerged from this War the most powerful nation in the world – the most powerful nation, perhaps, in all history.
How many organs are there in U.N.O? What are they?
There are six organs in U.N.O.
- The General Assembly
- The Security Council
- The Trusteeship Council
- The Economic and Social Council
- The International Court of Justice
- The Secretariat
Explain the organs of the U.N.O.
The UN works through six different organs. Each of these organs has specific functions like maintaining peace and security, improving education and health facilities, alleviating poverty, providing justice in the context of international crimes and so on. Some bodies responsible for these functions include International Court of Justice located in Hague; the World Health Organisation located at Geneva, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation functioning from Paris, and United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund functioning from New York.
What are the specialised agencies of U.N.O.?
The specialised agencies of U.N.O. are
What are the achievements of UNO?
- UNO has under taken complex operations like peace making, peace keeping, humanitarian assistance and disarmament etc.
- UNO intervened the issues of struggles of many countries and prevented them to more towards war – Ex: Cyprus issue.
- It encouraged bilateral discussions among countries to solve issues. Ex: Kashmir issue.
- Disarmament, CTBT etc. are the achievements of UNO that helped to reduce the piling up of armaments.
- UN helped to defuse Cuban missile crisis (1962), Middle East crisis (1973).
- UN-sponsored peace settlement ended Iran – Iraq war in 1988.
- UN-sponsored negotiations led to withdrawal of soviet troops from Afghanistan.
Which were the worst affected countries in World War – II?
The worst affected were the European countries especially the USSR, Poland and Yugoslavia which lost about 20% of its population. In economic terms to the USSR and other European countries lost heavily with the destruction of cities.
Why had the World War – II been fought? (OR)
What led to the formation of UNO?
The Second World War had been fought on the principles of peace, democracy and freedom of nations in contrast to the Nazi ideas of dictatorship and Imperialism. Thus, the first task was to establish a global organisation that would ensure peace and development in all nations. This led to the formation of the United Nations Organisation.
Is the UNO successful in preventions wars?
While the UN has been doing commendable work in the area of education, health, cultural exchange and protection of heritage, it has been less successful in preventing wars. It has often been held hostage to the ambitions of the super-powers that sought world control.
Which is called a Cold war?
For more than forty-five years after the Second World War, a rather strange war was fought between the two blocks. It was a war in which the principal contenders did not physically attack each other or fight each other directly and hence, there was no ‘hot’ war. Instead, a War was fought behind closed doors through propaganda and words. It is called the Cold War.
Why is it called the Cold war?
It is called the Cold War simply because of the absence of a real fighting as in traditional wars.
This Cold War characterised by intense tension between the United States and the USSR, influenced and shaped almost everything that happened in the world between 1945 and 1991.
What was the result of Afghanisthan invasion by the USSR?
In 1971 the USSR invaded Afghanistan to install a friendly government there. The US in turn provided armed support to Afghan rebels who were also religious extremists. A prolonged civil war ensued and as the USSR decided to withdraw from Afghanistan in 1985 that country fell to religious extremists led by the Taliban which now turned against the USA.
How did the Alliances help the superpowers?
The alliances helped superpowers which wanted to expand their influence to gain access to
- the vital resources like oil and minerals
- markets for their products and places to safely invest their capital
- military bases to launch their troops and weapons
- spread their ideology and
- gain economic support, to pay huge military expenses.
Explain the significance of the Bandung conference.
- In 1955 at Bandung in Indonesia a conference was held.
- It was the first Asio-African conference represented by 29 nations.
- The most important leaders of this conference were Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru the then Prime Minister of India, Gamal Abdul Nasser the leader of Egypt and Josip Broz Tito the leader of – Yugoslavia.
- Pt. Nehru was acknowledged as the chief spokes person.
- It paved the way for Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).
What are often described as the West Asian Crises? Write about them.
The conflicts that developed between Arabs and Jews are often described as the West Asian Crises. It was mainly related to the occupation of Palestine. Palestine which was inhabited by Arabs was under the control of Britain before the Second World War. In it is situated Jerusalem which is a holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims alike.
Write about the Taliban of Afghanistan.
The Taliban which took over Afghanistan after the withdrawal of Soviet troops similarly established an extremist Islamic state. These states tried to force all people to strictly follow the rules laid down in religious texts. In many cases, this meant the denial of basic freedom and equality of opportunity to women and to religious minorities.
Write about Mikhail Gorbachev.
Mikhail Gorbachev in the USSR tried to transform the politics of USSR by making it more open and bringing about radical changes. He was a liberal who introduced certain reforms for the revival of their economy and promoted healthy relations with the West. The reforms introduced by the open regime are often described as ‘Glasnost’and ‘Perestroika’.
Study the graph and answer the following questions.
1. Which country had spent more on Military Expenditure in its GDP?
Pakistan had spent more on military expenditure as % GDP.
2. What does the graph show?
The graph shows India’s and Pakistan’s Military Expenditures.
3. Analyze the above graph.
- The above graph shows the military expenses of India and Pakistan.
- In comparison, our country spent much on military than Pakistan.
- But in GDP values Pakistan spent much on the military in terms of GDP.
Why is China considering India as an adversary?
India gave asylum to Dalai Lama, this caused a conflict, and Chinese started considering India as an adversary. Prior to this, a border dispute had surfaced between India and China. China never accepted Mac Mohan Line as a boundary line between China and India. China laid claim to Aksai- chin area in Ladakh region and much of Arunachal Pradesh.
Write about the Indo-China war of 1962.
China invaded India in October 1962 violating the peace treaties it signed with India. India was not prepared for this surprise attack and suffered many losses. Eventually, China declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew its troops to its pre-war position. It took more than a decade to resume normal relations. Full diplomatic relations were restored only in 1976.
How has the Non-Alignment Movement emerged?
- A large number of developing countries that had attained independence after the World War II, during the cold war era, in order to maintain their hard-won freedom, decided to stay away from the arena of superpower rivalry.
- Non-Alignment movement emerged under the leadership of India, Egypt and Yugoslavia came into existence which added a new dimension to world politics.
10th Class Social 20th Lesson Post – War World and India 4 Marks Important Questions and Answers
Observe the Europe map and write any two countries from the WARSA pool and any two countries from the NATO pool.
|NATO Pool||WARSA Pool|
Observe the graph given below and answer the following questions.
1. Which country has more nuclear stock piles during 1955-1975?
United States of America.
2. What is the number of warheads that United States had in 1965?
3. What led the countries to emerge camps after Second World War?
- Ideological conflicts between US and USSR.
- For military supremacy and to gain economic supremacy lead the countries to emerge camps after the Second World War.
4. Why the countries decreased their nuclear stockpiles after 1990?
- Realised that war mongering and the consequent arms race only made the world more unsafe and increased the possibility of a disastrous war for all countries.
- As a result of the pressures the USA and USSR, the main competitors in the arms race, signed on cut down their nuclear arsenal (SALT, START).
- Cold war came to an end with the collapses of USSR in 1991; is also another reason for this.
What steps both India and China should take to build lasting peace between the two countries?
- Both countries should respect the sovereignty of each other.
- Border disputes should be resolved peacefully.
- Diplomatic relations should be enhanced.
- One country should not treat the other one as its competitor.
- The spirit of the ‘Panchasheel Pact’ should be followed by both the countries.
- Friendship should be enhanced through cultural exchange.
Why is peace between India and Pakistan necessary for the development of both countries?
- Both India and Pakistan have nuclear status and in this scenario the need of peace process between them is much more important than ever before.
- Any kind of conventional armed conflict can change into a nuclear war.
- So the peace process should be based on the development of both the countries.
- For social, political and economical development of both the countries, peace should be established between them.
What is the NAM? What are its main objectives?
- Not joining in any powerful block either the USA block or the USSR block.
- Maintaining equal distance and behave independently.
- Maintain the world peace.
- Maintain cooperation among the member nations.
- To prevent any of the newly decolonised independent countries from joining any of the military blocks.
- Estimate the growing cold war tensions and its impact on the world at large.
What is the role of the UNO in maintaining world peace?
In order to build peace in the world the U.N.O. plays its prominent role as below.
The U.N.O. was established on 24th October, 1945.
- It prevented the Cold War.
- It succeeded in getting independence to Indonesia from the Dutch.
- It solved the dispute in Palestine between Arabs and Jews by creating a separate state of Israel for Jews.
- It succeeded in averting a war between England and Egypt over Suez Canal issue.
- It created pressure on Russia and the U.S.A. to the reducing of nuclear weapons.
- It helped Congo to get freedom.
- U.N. helped to defuse Cuban missile crisis, middle east crisis.
- UN sponsored peace settlement ended Iran – Iraq war.
- UN sponsored negotiations led to the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
- It helped Cyprus to avert conflict between Greeks and Turks.
- When Pakistan resorted to aggression over Kashmir it intervened and tried to avert the war between India and Pakistan.
- It helped to Angola to get independence from Portugal.
- So far it has been able to prevent a Third World War.
Write a detailed note on West Asian conflicts.
Jerusalem is a holy city for Jews, Christians, Muslims alike. The Jews consider Palestine as their Promised Land. The conflict came to ahead in Germany under the Nazis when millions of Jews of Europe were jailed and killed. Zionist movement spread across the world and tried to reclaim Palestine as their homeland. This demand was supported by the Western powers. Both the USA and the USSR wanted to bring this region of massive oil reserves under their control. UN divided into two parts Arab and the Jewish states. The Arabs refused to recognize Israel as a legitimate state. Egypt came in support of Palestine but in 1956 Israel attacked Egypt with the support of Western Powers. Israel withdrew the army. The Palestine Liberation Organization encouraged the Arabs to attack. Israel. Yasser Arafat carried out terrorist attacks. Later he gave up terrorist attacks and agreed to find a peaceful solution. He died in 2004 and the Palestinians are still fighting for their homeland.
Observe the following table and analyze it with regard to the trend of nuclear weapons stockpiles.
Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles (1990 – 2014)
|Russia / USSR||37,000||27,000||21,500||17,000||7,500|
The given table is about nuclear weapons stockpiles during the period 1990-2014. In this table the superpowers United States of America and Union of Soviet Socialist Republic are compared. In the beginning, the frequency of period is five years but in the ending 2014 is given immediately after 2005. During 1990 the nuclear weapons stockpiles with both the countries are high. United States of America has 10,904 whereas Union of Soviet Socialist Republic has 37,000. This is about four times more than the weapons of USA. The wonder is that 1995 onwards the number of stockpiles is reducing. It has many reasons. It is the experience of 1945 nuclear bomb blast of Hiroshima and Nagasaki of Japan. Millions of civilians also died in that blast. Second World War brought various experiences to the world. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaties are also the reasons. UNO also brought awareness among the nations. Human Rights Commissions also tried well. During 2014 the USSR brought the weapons down to 7500 only. This is really drastic reduce. In 1990 the USSR has four times more weapons to the USA whereas during 2014 it is only about 300 more weapons. All the countries should think that if nuclear weapons are used in the wars, there will be much destruction to the mankind. Superpowers and developing countries also concentrate on reducing the nuclear weapons. Recently North Korea tested these weapons and created much tension among the counties. So everyone should respect peace.
Is Veto power to a few countries in the UNO, helping or barrier for World Peace? Discuss.
Some times Veto power is working as a barrier and also helpful to world peace.
How it is a barrier:
- Often the great powers themselves involved in many of the conflicts used their Veto power to block any action by the U.N.O.
- Sometimes they have also used their power to force the UN to bend to their dictates.
How it is helping :
The special powers also have given the great powers a special role and responsibility in preserving world peace.
U.N.O created pressure on Russia and the USA to the reducing of nuclear weapons.
U.N.O helped to defuse Cuban missile crisis.
However, the very existence of a forum like UN, has forced great powers to exercise moderation and self-control.
Observe the given graph and analyse it.
- The graph explains about India and Pakistan military expenditures.
- Pakistan had spent more on military expenditure as % GDP.
- The military expenditure of India was also high.
- India had spent less on military expenditure as % GDP.
Both countries gave importance to gather more & more weapons because always Pakistan is provoking India on the issue of Jammu & Kashmir.
In 2016 Uri incident also happened. India faces a problem with China also.
Since 1988 Pakistan military expenditure has not been high. Since 2000 onwards it has been increasing. Though the amount is increased its expenditure in GDP percentage is decreasing. It seems to be less but in total it is more and dangerous to its neighbouring countries like India. At the same time India is also increasing its expenditure on military to protect its people from neighbouring countries.
Observe the following table and analyse it.
US and USSR Nuclear Stockpiles (Number of warheads)
- From the given table we understand that from the year 1965 to 2005 the U.S stock-piles gradually decreased.
- In the U.S.S.R the stockpiles increased from 1965 to 1985, and then decreased till 2005.
Reason for increasing the stockpiles: At the beginning the stockpiles number is increased due to military supremacy and to gain economic supremacy that leads the countries to emerge camps after Second World War.
Reasons for decreasing their stockpiles:
- Both the countries realised that warmongering and the consequent arms race only made the world more unsafe and increased the possibility of a disastrous war for all countries.
- As a result of the pressures the USA and the USSR, the main competitors in the arms race, signed on cut down their nuclear orsenal.
- Cold war came to an end with the collapses of the USSR in 1991; is also another reason for this.
Under the present circumstances, give suggestions to build cordial relations between India and its neighbouring countries.
Why should India have cordial relations with neighbouring countries?
- India was a founder of the NAM which sought to keep an independent position between the two superpowers.
- India tried to base its foreign policy on the Gandhian principles of peace and non-violence.
- India is emerging as a major world economic and political power. So, it should get support from the neighbours and in turn help them.
- It should take measures to maintain peace and tranquillity at the borders, which is possible only with cordial relations with neighbours.
- It has shared culture and civilisation with neighbouring countries, thus built bridges of friendship through trade, sports, films, tourism and cultural exchanges.
- It shall have a greater understanding and cooperation among the people of neighbouring nations.
- It shall have friendly relations with neighbouring countries and blossom secularism, democracy and freedom here.
- It shall have cooperation with neighbours on disaster management.
Describe the present circumstances that one threatening world peace.
Present circumstances that are threatening world peace:
- Armament race
- Exploitation of resources
- Interference of developed countries in the affairs of developing countries
- Aggressive nationalism
Read the given paragraph and write your opinion.
During the last few decades, Tribal and Marginal farmers have also been threatened by Commercial farmers, mining corporations, dam projects, etc. As the large companies find rare resources in remote rural areas, like minerals, rare plants or animals and water, there has been a rapid increase in the ousting of the farming and tribal population from their traditional areas.
According to the given paragraph the marginalised communities are being neglected and mostly they are exploited. Big companies invest money for their benefits and so the tribal people are far away from agriculture forcefully.
Mining corporations take permission from the mineral development Department or the government and they start mining. Sometimes government plan to construct dams so as to get the water irrigated to feed lakhs of hectares of cultivable land and in some cases uncultivable land also will be converted to cultivable. The people in foot hills of the hills mountains or forests will be asked to migrate to other places. Sometimes it is a must. Then they oppose the construction of dams and other developmental activities.
Government has to give sufficient compensation to the land losers. Moreover it is better to provide land in place of land, but it should be of same quality cultivable. When farmers, tribals are asked to vacate where do they go. Without proper planning it impossible to move. In some localities like Yellampally and Mid Manair areas the land losers got sufficient compensation and so they settled in new colonies. In Kudamkulam in Tamilnadu, Narmada dam construction the land losers are not satisfied.
Read the text and answer the following question.
Two major ideological and political camps emerged in the post war period -the Communist block led by the USSR and the Democratic-Capitalist Block led by the USA. On the one hand, the USSR promoted the ideas of equality and state-controlled development and suppression of opposition to these principles. On the other hand, the USA promoted the ideas of multiparty democracy and private capitalist controlled process of development.
Distinguish between the communist block and capitalist block.
|Communist and Socialistic block||Capitalistic and Democratic block|
|1. The communist block was lead by the USSR.||1. The capitalistic block was lead by the USA.|
|2. Here the process of development is controlled by the state.||2. Here, the private capitalists controlled the process of development.|
|3. Socialism and idea of equality exist here.||3. Democracy exists here.|
|4. Opposition was suppressed.||4. The USA promoted the idea of multiparty democracy.|
Read the passage and answer the following question.
Lai Bahadur Shastri in a rally in Delhi after the end of the war, decried the attempt of Pakistan to use religious symbolism in the war claiming it to be a war of Muslims against Hindus. He proudly stated that India was a secular country.
“The unique thing about our country is that we have Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Parsis and people of all other religions. We have temples and mosques, gurudwaras and churches. But we do not bring this all into politics… This is the difference between India and Pakistan. Whereas Pakistan proclaims herself to be an Islamic State and uses religion as a political factor, we Indians have freedom to follow whatever religion we may choose [and] worship in any way we please. So far as politics is concerned, each of us is as much as Indian as the other.”
Interpret the speech of Lai Bahadur Sastry.
- The above famous speech was delivered by Lai Bahadur Sastry after the Indo-Pak war.
- He assured the world and the Muslims that it is a secular country.
- So many religions are there in India.
- We respect all worshipping places on equal grounds.
- In India these religions have no role to play in politics as ours is a secular state.
- People can choose any religion but all of us are Indians.
- This speech was delivered when Pakistan gave religious symbolism in the war.
Read the information and answer the following questions.
a) What does the above graph indicate?
The above graph indicates the nuclear stock piles of the US and the USSR.
b) Which country has highest armament stock during 1985?
c) The nuclear stockpiles of which country did not change between 1995-2005?
d) After which year the nuclear stockpiles of Russia exceeded America?
After 1975, the nuclear stockpiles of Russia exceeded America.
e) How much were the stockpiles of Russia and America during 1965?
The stockpiles of Russia and America during 1965 were 5000 and 30000 respectively.
f) How much stockpiles did both the countries possess during 1975?
Both the countries have the same nuclear stockpiles, i.e. 25000.
g) Which country is storing atomic weapons in large?
The USSR is storing atomic weapons in large.
h) What may be the reason for decrease of atomic weapons storage?
Protest movements against the atomic weapons may be the reason in a decrease of atomic weapon storage.
i) How much the stock of weapons of Russia is more than America?
Russia has about 15000 warheads more than America.
Read the information and answer the following questions.
a) Which country is spending more money on military?
b) Which countries military expenses in terms of GDP are more?
Pakistan’s Military expenses in terms of GDP are more.
c) In which year the military expenditure as of GDP was more?
Between 2008-09, the military expenditure of GDP equal.
d) What conclusion can you draw from the above graph?
- The military expenditure as a percentage of GDP has been decreasing.
- The military expenditure of both countries has been increasing.
Read the passage and state your opinion on it.
“Pakistan has over the years encouraged separatist movement in the border states of India like Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. It is actively training and sending religious extremists to foment trouble in India.
- India and Pakistan became independent by bifurcating from erstwhile British India.
- The first war between countries took place in 1948.
- Again in 1965 Pakistan invaded India.
- Tashkent agreement was signed between two countries in 1966.
- War broke out in 1971 again over the issue of liberation of Bangladesh.
- Since then, the Pakistan over years encouraging separatist movement in the border states of India.
- Both the countries are spending much amounts of scarce funds on arming themselves against each other.
- Both the countries should go for a solution and reduce tension along the border.
On the outline map of world identify the following locations.
Locate the following in the given map of World.
- Fascism belongs to this country.
- Head quarters of League of Nations.
- Mediterranean sea
- Burma / Myanmar