AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 3 Science of Plants – Botany

   

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material 3rd Lesson Science of Plants – Botany Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material 3rd Lesson Science of Plants – Botany

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Explain how the term Botany has emerged.
Answer:
In ancient Greek language, the term Bouskein means Cattle feed. The term ‘Bouskein’ gave rise to “Botane” from which the term “Botany’’ is derived.

Question 2.
Name the books written Parasara and mention the important aspects discussed in those books. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
Parasara’s ‘Krishi Parasaram’ mentioned about agriculture and weeds. ‘Vrikshayurveda’ gives information about 14 types of forests; the external and internal characters of plants and about medicinal plants.

Question 3.
Who is popularly known as father of Botany ? What was the book written by him? [T.S. Mar, 18]
Answer:
“Theophrastus” is regarded as the Father of Botany. The book written by him was ‘De Historia plantarum”,

Question 4.
Who are Herbalists? What are the books written by them?
Answer:
The scientists who described the live Medicinal plants technically are called the Herbalists. The books written by them are called Herbals.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 3 Science of Plants – Botany

Question 5.
What was the contribution of Carolus Von Linnaeus for the development of plant taxonomy?
Answer:
“Carolus Von Linnaeus” popularised Binomial Nomenclature. He also proposed the sexual system of classification.

Question 6.
Why is Mendel considered as the father of Genetics?
Answer:
Mendel conducted Hybridization experiments on pea plants and also introduced the laws of inheritance in 1866. Hence, he is considered as the Father of Genetics.

Question 7.
Who discovered the cell and what was the book written by him? [A.P. May 17, Mar 14]
Answer:
Robert Hooke first discovered the cell. “Micrographia” was the book written by him.

Question 8.
What is Palaeobotany? What is its use? [T.S. Mar, 17, 15, 13]
Answer:
Palaeobotany deals with the study of fossil plants. It helps in understanding the course of evolution in plants.

Question 9.
Name the branches of Botany which deal with the chlorophylfous autotrophic thallophytes and non-chlorophyllous heterotrophic thallophytes.
Answer:
Study of chlorophyllous autotrophic thallophytes is called Phycology. Study of non- chlorophyllous heterotrophic thallophytes is called Mycology.

Question 10.
What are the group of plants that live as symbionts in lichens? Name the study of Lichens. [T.S. May, 18]
Answer:
Algae and Fungi are the plant groups that live as symbionts in lichens. The study of lichens is called lichenology.

Question 11.
Which group of plants are called Vascular cryptogams ? Name the branch of Botany which deals with them?
Answer:
“Pteridophytes” are called vascular cryptogams. The branch of Botany that deals with them is called Pteridology.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 3 Science of Plants – Botany

Question 12.
Which group of plants are called amphibians of plant kingdom? Name the branch of Botany which deals with them.
Answer:
Bryophytes are called amphibians of plant Kingdom. The branch that deals with Bryophytes is called Bryology.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief the scope of Botany in relation to agriculture, horticulture and medicine.
Answer:

  1. The problems like decreasing resources and increasing population could be solved by enhancing crop yield through Green Revolution and.also by developing disease* pest resistance crops by utilizing the principles of Biotechnology.
  2. Progress in Agriculture, Forestry horticulture is possible through hybridization experiments and Genetic Engineering technology.
  3. New plant breeding techniques are useful to develop hybrid varieties in crop plants like Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sugarcane etc.
  4. Phytopathology is helpful in the prevention and eradication of several plant diseases.
  5. Knowledge on the role of plant hormones in plant growth and development is significant to improve Agriculture and Horticulture through herbicidal control of weed, breaking of seed dormancy etc., Experiments in tissue and organ culture is possible to produce large number of plants in the laboratory within a short duration.
  6. Several industries could be developed based on Botany.
  7. Studies in Medicinal plants like Arnica, Cinchona, Neem, Datura, Rauwolfia, Ocimum are also important to explore them for human health care.
  8. Production of Antibiotics, Bioinsecticides, single cell proteins is also made possible by study of these product yielding plants.

Question 2.
Explain the scope of Botany taking plant physiology as example.
Answer:

  1. The role of Minerals iri plant nutrition is useful in rational usage of chemical fertilizers and control of mineral deficiencies to improve Agricultural productivity.
  2. Knowledge on the role of plant hormones in plant growth and development’s highly significant to improve Agriculture and horticulture through herbicidal control of weeds, breaking of seed dormancy, enhancement of shelf-life period of leafy vegetables like spinach, artificial ripening of fruits like apple, banana and rooting of stem cuttings for Vegetative propogation.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material Chapter 3 Science of Plants – Botany

Question 3.
What are the different branches of botany that deal with morphology of plants ? Give their salient features.
Answer:
Morphology deals with the study of different organs of a plant. It is a fundamental requisite for classification of plants. It is of two types,
a) External Morphology
b) Internal Morphology.

a) External Morphology :
It is the study and description of external characters of plant organs like root, stem, leaf, flower, seed and fruit etc.

b) Internal Morphology :
It is the study of internal structure of different plant organs. It is of two types. They are i) Histology ii) Anatomy.
i) Histology :
Study of different tissues present in the plant body.

ii) Anatomy :
Study of gross internal details of plant organs like root, stem, leaf, flower, etc.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Give a comprehensive account of the scope of Botany in different fields giving an example for each.
Answer:
I) Agriculture :

  1. Enhancement of crop yield through Green Revolution solves the problems like decreasing resources and increasing population.
  2. New plant breeding techniques are useful to develop hybrid varieties in crop plants like Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sugarcane etc.
  3. Phytopathology is helpful in prevention and eradication of several plant diseases.

II) Medicine :

  1. Studies in Medicinal plants like Arnica, Cinchona, Neem, Datura, Rauwolfia, Ocimum are important to explore them for human health care.
  2. Production of antibiotics, bioinsecticides, single cell proteins is made possible by study of these plants.

III) Environmental Issues :

  1. Control of Green house effect by tree plantation and soil pollution by bio-remediation, recycling of nutrients by saprophytic organisms, usage of biofertilizers to avoid soil and water pollution caused by chemical fertilizers and prevention of soil erosion by sand binding plants.
  2. Usage of algae (Chlorella) as food for astronauts in space research programmes and extraction of Iodine, agar-agar etc. from several sea weeds also indicate the scope of Botany for the Contemporary World.

IV) Commercial Products :
Knowledge of plants which yield commercially important and useful products like timber fibres, beverages such as coffe and tea, condiments, rubber, gums, resins, dyes, essential and aromatic oils is of great importance for their exploitation.