AP Inter 1st Year Chemistry Study Material Pdf | Intermediate 1st Year Chemistry Textbook Solutions

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AP Inter 1st Year Chemistry Study Material in English Medium

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TS AP Inter 1st Year Chemistry Weightage 2022-2023 | TS AP Inter 1st Year Chemistry Blue Print 2022

TS AP Inter 1st Year Chemistry Weightage Blue Print

Intermediate 1st Year Chemistry Syllabus

TS AP Inter 1st Year Chemistry Syllabus

Chapter 1 Atomic Structure (20 Periods)

  • 1.1 Sub-atomic particles
  • 1.2 Atomic models-Rutherford’s Nuclear model of the atom
  • 1.3 Developments to Bohr’s model of the atom.
    • 1.3.1 Nature of electromagnetic radiation
    • 1.3.2 Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation-Planck’s quantum theory
  • 1.4 Bohr’s model for the hydrogen atom
    • 1.4.1 Explanation of line spectrum of hydrogen
    • 1.4.2 Limitations of Bohr’s model
  • 1.5 Quantum mechanical considerations of sub-atomic particles
    • 1.5.1 Dual behaviour of matter
    • 1.5.2 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
  • 1.6 Quantum mechanical model of an atom. Important features of the Quantum mechanical model of the atom.
    • 1.6.1 Orbitals and quantum numbers
    • 1.6.2 Shapes of atomic orbitais
    • 1.6.3 Energies of orbitals
    • 1.6.4 Filling of orbitals in atoms, Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle, and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity
    • 1.6.5 Electronic configurations of atoms
    • 1.6.6 Stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

Chapter 2 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties (20 Periods)

  • 2.1 Need to classify elements
  • 2.2 Genesis of periodic classification
  • 2.3 Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table
  • 2.4 Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100
  • 2.5 Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table
  • 2.6 Electronic configuration and types of elements s.p.d. and f blocks
  • 2.7 Trends in physical properties:
    • 2.7.1 (a) Atomic radius, (b) Ionic radius, (c) Variation of size in inner transition elements, (d) Ionization enthalpy, (e) Electron gain enthalpy, (f) Electro negativity
    • 2.7.2 Periodic trends in chemical properties: (a) Valence or Oxidation states, (b) Anomalous properties of second-period elements – diagonal relationship.
    • 2.7.3 Periodic trends and chemical reactivity.

Chapter 3 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (20 Periods)

  • 3.1 Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding
  • 3.2 Ionic or electrovalent bond – Factors favourable for the formation of the ionic compounds-Crystal structure of Sodium chloride – General Properties of ionic compounds.
  • 3.3 Bond Parameters – bond length, bond angle, bond enthalpy, bond order, and resonance – Polarity of bonds dipole moment.
  • 3.4 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theories. Predicting the geometry of simple molecules.
  • 3.5 Valence bond theory – Orbital overlap concept-Directional properties of bonds-overlapping of atomic orbitals strength of sigma and pi bonds-Factors favouring the formation of covalent bonds.
  • 3.6 Hybridisation-different types of hybridization involving s, p, and d orbitals -shapes of simple covalent molecules.
  • 3.7 Coordinate bond – definition with examples.
  • 3.8 Molecular orbital theory – Formation of molecular orbitals. Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)- conditions for a combination of atomic orbitals – Energy level diagrams for molecular orbitals – Bonding in some homo nuclear diatomic molecules – H2, He2, Li2, B2, C2, N2 and O2
  • 3.9 Hydrogen bonding-cause of formation of hydrogen bond-Types of hydrogen bonds-inter and intra molecular – General properties of hydrogen bonds.

Chapter 4 States of Matter: Gases and Liquids (15 Periods)

  • 4.1 Intermolecular forces
  • 4.2 Thermal Energy
  • 4.3 Intermolecular forces Vs Thermal interactions
  • 4.4 The Gaseous State
  • 4.5 The Gas Laws
  • 4.6 Ideal gas equation
  • 4.7 Graham’s law of diffusion – Dalton’s Law of partial pressures
  • 4.8 Kinetic molecular theory of gases
  • 4.9 Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas(No derivation)- Deduction of gas laws from Kinetic gas equation.
  • 4. 10 Distribution of molecular speeds – rms, average and most probable speeds -Kinetic energy of gas molecules.
  • 4.11 Behaviour of real gases – Deviation from Ideal gas behaviour – Compressibility factor Vs Pressure diagrams of real gases.
  • 4.12 Liquefaction of gases
  • 4.13 Liquid State – Properties of Liquids in terms of intermolecular interactions – Vapour pressure, Viscosity, and Surface tension (Qualitative idea only. No mathematical derivation).

Chapter 5 Stoichiometry (15 Periods)

  • 5.1 Some Basic Concepts – Properties of matter – uncertainty in Measurement – significant figures, dimensional analysis
  • 5.2 Laws of Chemical Combinations – Law of Conservation of mass, the law of definite proportions, the law of multiple proportions, Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous volumes, Dalton’s atomic theory, Avogadro law, principles, and examples.
  • 5.3 Atomic and molecular masses- mole concept and molar mass concept of equivalent weight.
  • 5.4 Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds.
  • 5.5 Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations.
  • 5.6 Methods of expressing concentrations of solutions-mass percent, mole fraction, molarity, and normality.
  • 5.7 Redox reactions-classical idea of redox reactions, oxidation, and reduction reactions-redox reactions in terms of electron transfer.
  • 5.8 Oxidation number concept.
  • 5.9 Types of Redox reactions-combination, decomposition, displacement, and disproportionation reactions.
  • 5.10 Balancing of redox reactions- oxidation number method, half-reaction(ion-electron) method.
  • 5.11 Redox reactions in titrimetry

Chapter 6 Thermodynamics (10 Periods)

  • 6.1 Thermodynamic terms
    • 6.1.1 The system and the surroundings
    • 6.1.2 Types of systems and surroundings
    • 6.1.3 The state of the system
    • 6.1.4 The Internal Energy as a state function, (a) Work (b) Heat (c) The general case, the first law of Thermodynamics
  • 6.2 Applications
    • 6.2.1 Work
    • 6.2.2 Enthalpy. H- a useful new state function
    • 6.2.3 Extensive and intensive properties.
    • 6.2.4 Heat capacity
    • 6.2.5 The relationship between Cp and Cv
  • 6.3 Measurement of “U and H”: calorimetry.
  • 6.4 Enthalpy change, ‘rH’of reactions-reaction Enthalpy, (a) Standard enthalpy of reactions, (b) Enthalpy changes during transformations, (c) Standard enthalpy of formation, (d) Thermo chemical equations, (e) Hess’s law of constant heat summation.
  • 6.5 Enthalpies for different types of reactions, (a) Standard enthalpy of combustion (“cH°) (b) Enthalpy of atomization (“a Ho). Phase transition, sublimation, and ionization, (c) Bond Enthalpy (“bond H6) (d) Enthalpy of solution (“sol Ho), and dilution.
  • 6.6 Spontaneity, (a) Is a decrease in enthalpy a criterion for spontaneity? (b) Entropy and spontaneity are the second law of thermodynamics, (c) Gibbs Energy and spontaneity.
  • 6.7 Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium.
  • 6.8 Absolute entropy and the third law of thermodynamics.

Chapter 7 Chemical Equilibrium and Acids-Bases (15 Periods)

  • 7.1 Equilibrium in a physical process
  • 7.2 Equilibrium in chemical process – dynamic equilibrium.
  • 7.3 Law of chemical equilibrium- Law of mass action and equilibrium constant.
  • 7.4 Homogeneous equilibria, the equilibrium constant in the gaseous system, Relationship between K and Kc.
  • 7.5 Heterogeneous equilibria.
  • 7.6 Applications of equilibrium constant.
  • 7.7 Relationship between equilibrium constant K reaction quotient Q arid Gibbs energy G.
  • 7.8 Factors affecting equilibrium Le-chatelier’s principle applies to the industrial synthesis of ammonia and sulphur trioxide.
  • 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in solutions.
  • 7.10 Acids, bases, and salts – Arrhenius, Bronsted- Lowry, and Lewis concepts of acids and bases.
  • 7.11, Ionisation of acids and bases – Ionisation constant of water and ifs ionic product- pH scale -ionisation constants of weak acids-ionization of weak bases-relation between Ka and Kb -di and polybasic acids and di poly acidic bases-factors affecting acid strength-common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases-hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions.
  • 7.12 Buffer solutions-designing of buffer solution-preparation of the acidic buffer.
  • 7.13 Solubility equilibria of sparingly soluble salts, solubility product constant common ion effect solubility of Ionic salts.

Chapter 8 Hydrogen and its Compounds (8 Periods)

  • 8.1 Position of hydrogen in the periodic table.
  • 8.2 Dihydrogen-occurrence and isotopes.
  • 8.3 Preparation of dihydrogen
  • 8.4 Properties of dihydrogen
  • 8.5 Hydrides:ionic. covalent, and non-stiochiometrichydrides
  • 8.6 Water-physical properties; structure of water, ice. Chemical properties of water; hard and soft water temporary and permanent hardness of water
  • 8.7 Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation; physical properties; structure and chemical properties; storage and uses
  • 8.8 Heavy water
  • 8.9 Hydrogen as a fuel

Chapter 9 s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals) (8 Periods)
Group 1 Elements:

  • 9.1 Alkali metals; electronic configurations; atomic and ionic radii; ionization enthalpy hydration enthalpy; physical properties; chemical properties; uses.
  • 9.2 General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals; oxides; halides; salts of oxy acids.
  • 9.3 Anomalous properties of lithium: differences and similarities with other alkali metals, diagonal relationship; similarities between lithium and magnesium.
  • 9.4 Some important compounds of sodium- Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate.
  • 9.5 Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium.

Group 2 Elements:

  • 9.6 Alkaline earth elements; electronic configuration; ionization enthalpy; hydration enthalpy; physical properties; chemical properties; uses.
  • 9.7 General. characteristics of compounds of the alkaline earth metals: oxides, hydroxides, halides, salts of oxyacids (carbonates; sulphates, and nitrates).
  • 9.8 Anomalous behavior of beryllium; its diagonal relationship with aluminium.
  • 9.9 Some important compounds of calcium: Preparation and uses of calcium oxide; calcium hydroxide; calcium carbonate; plaster of Paris; cement.
  • 9.10 Biological importance of calcium and magnesium.

Chapter 10 p-Block Elements Group 13 (8 Periods)
Boron Family

  • 10.1 General introduction – electronic configuration, atomic radii, ionization enthalpy, electronegativity; physical & chemical properties.
  • 10.2 Important trends and anomalous properties of boron.
  • 10.3 Some important compounds of boron-borax, orthoboric acid, and diborane.
  • 10.4 Use of boron, aluminium, and their compounds.

Chapter 11 p-Block Elements Group 14 (8 Periods)
Carbon Family

  • 11.1 General introduction – electronic configuration, atomic radii, ionization enthalpy, electronegativity; physical & chemical properties.
  • 11.2 Important trends and anomalous properties of carbon.
  • 11.3 Allotropes of carbon
  • 11.4 Uses of carbon
  • 11.5 Some important compounds of carbon and silicon-carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, Silica, silicones, silicates, and zeolites.

Chapter 12 Environmental Chemistry (8 Periods)

  • 12.1 Definition of terms: Air, Water, and Soil Pollutions
  • 12.2 Environmental pollution
  • 12.3 Atmospheric pollution; tropospheric pollution; gaseous air pollutants (oxides of sulphur; oxides of nitrogen; hydrocarbons; oxides of carbon (CO; CO2), Global warming and greenhouse effect.
  • 12.4 Acid Rain-particulate pollutants-smog.
  • 12.5 Stratospheric Pollution: formation and breakdown of ozone-ozone hole-effects of depletion of the ozone layer.
  • 12.6 Water Pollution: causes of water pollution; international standards for drinking water.
  • 12.7 Soil Pollution: pesticides, industrial wastes.
  • 12.8 Strategies to control environmental pollution – waste management- collection and disposal
  • 12.9 Green chemistry: green chemistry in day-to-day life; dry cleaning of clothes; bleaching of paper; synthesis of chemicals.

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry-Some Basic Principles and Techniques and Hydrocarbons (25 Periods)

  • 13.1 General introduction
  • 13.2 Tetravalency of carbon: shapes of organic compounds
  • 13.3 Structural representations of organic compounds
  • 13.4 Classification of organic compounds
  • 13.5 Nomenclature of organic compounds
  • 13.6 Isomerism
  • 13.7 Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms
    • 13.7.1 Fission of covalent bond
    • 13.7.2 Nucleophiles and electrophiles
    • 13.7.3 Electron movements in organic reactions
    • 13.7.4 Electron displacement effects in covalent bonds
    • 13.7.5 Types of Organic reactions
  • 13.8 Methods of purification of organic compounds
  • 13.9 Qualitative elemental analysis of organic compounds
  • 13.10 Quantitative elemental analysis of organic compounds


  • 13.11 Classification of Hydrocarbons.
  • 13.12 Alkanes- nomenclature, isomerism (structural and conformations of ethane only)
    • 13.12.1 Preparation of alkanes
    • 13.12.2 Properties-physical properties and chemical reactivity, substitution reactions- halogenation (a free radical mechanism), combustion, controlled oxidation, isomerization, aromatization, reaction with steam, and Pyrolysis.
  • 13.13 Alkenes- Nomenclature, the structure of ethane, Isomerism (structural and geometrical).
    • 13.13.1 Methods of preparation.
    • 13.13.2 Properties: Physical and chemical reactions, the addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, sulphuric acid, Hydrogen halides Mechanism-ionic and peroxide effect, Markovnikov’s anti-Markovnikov’s or Kharasch effect). Oxidation, ozonolysis, and polymerization.
  • 13.14 Alkynes- nomenclature and isomerism, the structure of acetylene. Methods of preparation of acetylene.
    • 13.14.1 Physical properties, chemical reactions- the acidic character of acetylene, addition reactions of hydrogen, halogen, hydrogen halides, and water. Polymerization.
  • 13.15 Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and isomerism. Structure of benzene, resonance, and aromaticity.
    • 13.15.1 Preparation of benzene, Physical properties, Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Electrophilic substitution reactions- nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel-Craft’s alkylation, and acylation.
    • 13.15.2 Directive influence of functional groups in mono substituted benzene, Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

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